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Ralph S. Twosood 






WILLIAM L. AUSTIN, Rosemont, Pa. 

ALBA B. JOHNSON, Rosemont, Pa. 

SAMUEL M. VAUCLAIN, Rosemont, Pa. 

SAMUEL F. PRYOR, New York, N. Y. 

WILLIAM E. COREY, New York, N. Y. 

SYDNEY E. HUTCHINSON, Philadelphia, Pa. 
SIDNEY F. TYLER, Philadelphia, Pa. 

B. DAWSON COLEMAN, Lebanon, Pa. 

HAROLD T. WHITE, New York, N. Y. 

THOMAS G. ASHTON, Philadelphia, Pa. 

ARTHUR W. SEW ALL, Philadelphia, Pa. 

ARTHUR E. NEWBOLD, Philadelphia, Pa. 


ARTHUR E. NEWBOLD. . . Chairman of the Board 

WILLIAM L. AUSTIN . . Vice-Chairman of the Board 

SAMUEL M. VAUCLAIN . . President 

JOHN P. SYKES . . . Vice-President in Charge of Manufacture 

WILLIAM DEKRAFFT . . Vice-President in Charge of Finance, 

and Treasurer 

GRAFTON GREENOUGH . Vice-President in Charge of Domestic Sales 

F. DE ST. PHALLE . . Vice-President in Charge of Foreign Sales 
JAMES MCNAUGHTON . . Consulting Vice-President 

ARTHUR L. CHURCH . . Secretary and Assistant Treasurer 
A. B. EHST . . . Comptroller 

















































Incorporated under the Laws of Pennsylvania 

Incorporated under the Laws of Pennsylvania as 



Incorporated under the Laws of Pennsylvania as 




The Baldwin Locomotive Works 

THESE Works occupy nineteen and three-tenths acres in the 
heart of Philadelphia and five hundred and ninety-six acres 
at Eddystone, on the Delaware River, twelve miles below 
the city. The offices and principal machine shops are situated in 
the rectangle bounded on the north by Spring Garden Street, on 
the east by Broad Street, on the south by the Philadelphia and 
Reading Railway Subway and on the west by Nineteenth Street. 
There are also shops located on the line of the Philadelphia and 
Reading Railway at Twenty-sixth to Twenty-ninth Streets. 

The Works dates its origin from the inception of steam 
railroads in America. Called into existence by the early require- 
ments of the railroad interests of the country, it has grown with 
their growth and kept pace with their progress. It has reflected 
in its career the successive stages of American railroad practice, 
and has itself contributed largely to the development of the loco- 
motive as it exists today. A history of The Baldwin Locomotive 
Works, therefore, is in a great measure, a record of the progress 
of locomotive engineering in this country, and as such cannot 
fail to be of interest to those who are concerned in this important 
element of our material progress. 

MATTHIAS W. BALDWIN, the founder of the establishment, 
learned the trade of a jeweler, and entered the service of Fletcher 
& Gardiner, Jewelers and Silversmiths, Philadelphia, in 1817. 
Two years later he opened a small shop, in the same line of 
business, on his own account. The demand for articles of this 
character falling off, however, he formed a partnership in 1825, 
with David Mason, a machinist, in the manufacture of book- 
binders' tools and cylinders for calico printing. Their shop was 
in a small alley which runs north from Walnut Street, above 
Fourth. They afterward removed to Minor Street, below Sixth. 
The business was so successful that steam power became neces- 
sary in carrying on their manufactures, and an engine was bought 
for the purpose. This proving unsatisfactory, Mr. Baldwin 
decided to design and construct one which should be specially 



adapted to the requirements of his shop. One of these require- 
ments was that it should occupy the least possible space, and this 
was met by the construction of an upright engine on a novel and 
ingenious plan. On a bed-plate about five feet square an upright 
cylinder was placed ; the piston rod con- 
nected to a cross-bar having two legs, 
turned downward, and sliding in grooves 
on the sides of the cylinder, which thus 
formed the guides. To the sides of 
these legs, at their lower ends, was con- 
nected by pivots an inverted U-shaped 
frame, prolonged at the arch into a 
single rod, which took hold of the crank 
of a fly wheel carried by upright stand- 
ards on the bed-plate. It will be seen 
that the length of the ordinary separate 
guide-bars was thus saved, and the 
whole engine was brought within the 
smallest possible compass. The design 
of the machine was not only unique, but its workmanship was 
so excellent, and its efficiency so great, as readily to procure for 
Mr. Baldwin orders for additional stationary engines. His 
attention was thus turned to steam engineering, and the way 
was prepared for his grappling with the problem of the locomo- 
tive when the time should arrive. 

This original stationary engine, constructed prior to 1830, is 
still in good order and carefully preserved at the Works. It has 
successively supplied the power in six different departments as 
they have been opened, from time to time, in the growth of the 

The manufacture of stationary steam engines thus took a 
prominent place in the establishment, and Mr. Mason shortly 
afterward withdrew from the partnership. 

In 1829-30 the use of steam as a motive power on railroads 
had begun to engage the attention of American engineers. A 
few locomotives had been imported from England, and one 
(which, however, was not successful) had been constructed at 
the West Point Foundry, in New York City. To gratify the 


public interest in the new motor, Mr. Franklin Peale, then 
proprietor of the Philadelphia Museum, applied to Mr. Baldwin 
to construct a miniature locomotive for exhibition in his establish- 
ment. With the aid only of the imperfect published descriptions 
and sketches of the locomotives which had taken part in the 
Rainhill competition in England, Mr. Baldwin undertook the 
work, and on the 25th of April, 1831, the miniature locomotive 
was put in motion on a circular track made of pine boards 
covered with hoop iron, in the rooms of the Museum. Two 
small cars, containing seats for four passengers, were attached 
to it, and the novel spectacle attracted crowds of admiring 
spectators. Both anthracite and pine-knot coal were used as 
fuel, and the exhaust steam was discharged into the chimney, 
thus utilizing it to increase the draught. 

The success of the model was such that, in the same year, 
Mr. Baldwin received an order for a locomotive from the Phila- 
delphia, Germantown and Norristown Railroad Company, whose 
short line of six miles to Germantown was operated by horse 
power. The Camden and Amboy Railroad Company had 
shortly before imported a locomotive from England, which was 
stored in a shed at Bordentown. It had not yet been put 
together; but Mr. Baldwin, in company with his friend Mr. 
Peale, visited the spot, inspected the detached parts, and made a 
few memoranda of some of its principal dimensions. Guided by 
these figures and his experience with the Peale model, Mr. 
Baldwin commenced the task. The difficulties to be overcome 
in filling the order can hardly be appreciated at this day. There 
were few mechanics competent to do any part of the work on 
a locomotive. Suitable tools were with difficulty obtainable. 
Cylinders were bored by a chisel fixed in a block of wood and 
turned by hand. Blacksmiths able to weld a bar of iron exceed- 
ing one and one-quarter inches in thickness were few, or not to 
be had. It was necessary for Mr. Baldwin to do much of the 
work with his own hands, to educate the workmen who assisted 
him, and to improvise tools for the various processes. 

The work was prosecuted, nevertheless, under all these 
difficulties, and the locomotive was fully completed, christened 
"Old Ironsides," and tried on the road, November 23, 1832. 


The circumstances of the trial are fully preserved, and are given, 
farther on, in the extracts from the journals of the day. Despite 
some imperfections, naturally occurring in a first effort, and 
which were afterward to a great extent remedied, the engine was, 
for that early day, a marked and gratifying success. It was put 
at once into service, as appears from the company's advertise- 
ment three days after the trial, and did duty on the Germantown 
road and others for over a score of years. 

The "Ironsides" was a four-wheeled engine, modeled essen- 
tially on the English practice of that day, as shown in the 
"Planet" class, and weighed, in running order, something over 
five tons. The rear or driving wheels were fifty-four inches in 


diameter on a crank axle placed in front of the firebox. The 
cranks were thirty-nine inches from center to center. The front 
wheels, which were simply carrying wheels, were forty-five inches 
in diameter, on an axle placed just back of the cylinders. The 
cylinders were nine and one-half inches in diameter by eighteen 
inches stroke, and were attached horizontally to the outside of 
the smokebox, which was D-shaped, with the sides receding 
inwardly, so as to bring the center line of each cylinder in line 
with the center of the crank. The wheels were made with heavy 
cast-iron hubs, wooden spokes and rims, and wrought-iron tires. 
The frame was of wood, placed outside the wheels. The boiler 


was thirty inches in diameter, and contained seventy-two copper 
flues, one and one-half inches in diameter and seven feet long. 
The tender was a four-wheeled platform, with wooden sides and 
back, carrying an iron box for a water tank, inclosed in a wooden 
casing, and with a space for fuel in front. The engine had no 
cab. The valve motion was at first given by a single loose 
eccentric for each cylinder, placed on the axle between the crank 
and the hub of the wheel. On the inside of the eccentric was 
a half-circular slot, running half way around. A stop was 
fastened to the axle at the arm of the crank, terminating in a 
pin which projected into the slot. The engine was reversed by 
changing the position of the eccentric on the axle by a lever 
operated from the footboard. This form of valve motion was, 
however, shortly afterward changed, and a single fixed eccentric 
for each cylinder substituted. The rock shafts, which were 
under the footboard, had arms above and below, and the eccen- 
tric straps had each a forked rod, with a hook, or an upper and 
lower latch or pin, at their extremities, to engage with the upper 
or lower arm of the rock shaft. The eccentric rods were raised 
or lowered by a double treadle, so as to connect with the upper 
or lower arm of the rock shaft, according as forward or backward 
gear was desired. A peculiarity in the exhaust of the "Ironsides" 
was that there was only a single straight pipe running across from 
one cylinder to the other, with an opening in the upper side of 
the pipe, midway between the cylinders, to which was attached 
at right angles the perpendicular pipe into the chimney. The 
cylinders, therefore, exhausted against each other; and it was 
found, after the engine had been put in use, that this was a 
serious objection. This defect was afterward remedied by turn- 
ing each exhaust pipe upward into the chimney substantially 
as it is now done. The steam joints were made with canvas 
and red lead, as was the practice in English locomotives, and in 
consequence much trouble was caused, from time to time, by 

The price of the engine was to have been $4000, but some 
difficulty was found in procuring a settlement. The company 
claimed that the engine did not perform according to contract; 
and objection was also made to some of the defects alluded to. 


After these had been corrected as far as possible, however, Mr. 
Baldwin finally succeeded in effecting a compromise settlement, 
and received from the Company $3500 for the machine. 

The results of the trial and the impression produced by it on 
the public mind may be gathered from the following extracts 
from the newspapers of the day : 

The United States Gazette, of November 24, 1832, remarked: 

"A most gratifying experiment was made yesterday afternoon on the 
Philadelphia, Germantown and Norristown Railroad. The beautiful loco- 
motive engine and tender, built by Mr. Baldwin, of this city, whose repu- 
tation as an ingenious machinist is well known, were for the first time placed 
on the road. The engine traveled about six miles, working with perfect 
accuracy and ease in all its parts, and with great velocity." 

The Chronicle of the same date noticed the trial more at 
length, as follows: 

"It gives us pleasure to state that the locomotive engine built by our 
townsman, M. VV. Baldwin, has proved highly successful. In the presence of 
several gentlemen of science and information on such subjects, the engine 
was yesterday placed upon the road for the first time. All her parts had been 
previously highly finished and fitted together in Mr. Baldwin's factory. She 
was taken apart on Tuesday, and removed to the Company's depot, and 
yesterday morning she was completely together, ready for travel. After 
the regular passenger cars had arrived from Germantown in the afternoon, 
the tracks being clear, preparation was made for her starting. The placing 
fire in the furnace and raising steam occupied twenty minutes. The engine 
(with her tender) moved from the depot in beautiful style, working with 
great ease and uniformity. She proceeded about half a mile beyond the 
Union Tavern, at the township line, and returned immediately, a distance 
of six miles, at a speed of about twenty-eight miles to the hour, her speed 
having been slackened at all the road crossings, and it being after dark, but 
a portion of her power was used. It is needless to say that the spectators 
were delighted. From this experiment there is every reason to believe this 
engine will draw thirty tons gross, at an average speed of forty miles an hour, 
on a level road. The principal superiority of the engine over any of the 
English ones known consists in the light weight which is but between four 
and five tons her small bulk, and the simplicity of her working machinery. 
We rejoice at the result of this experiment, as it conclusively shows that 
Philadelphia, always famous for the skill of her mechanics, is enabled to pro- 
duce steam engines for railroads combining so many superior qualities as to 
warrant the belief that her mechanics will hereafter supply nearly all the public 
works of this description in the country." 


On subsequent trials, the "Ironsides" attained a speed of 
thirty miles per hour, with its usual train attached. So great 
were the wonder and curiosity which attached to such a prodigy, 
that people flocked to see the marvel, and eagerly bought the 
privilege of riding after the strange monster. The officers of the 
road were not slow to avail themselves of the public interest to 
increase their passenger receipts, and the following advertisement 
from Paulson's American Daily Advertiser, of November 26, 
1832, will show that as yet they regarded the new machine rather 
as a curiosity and a bait to allure travel than as a practical every- 
day servant. 




The Locomotive Engine, (built by 
M. W. Baldwin, of this city,) will depart 
ILY, when the.weaiher is fair, with a TBAIN OF 
PASSENGER CAHJS, commencing cm Mondav the 26ib 
inst., at the following hours, viz:. 


At 11 o'clock, A M. I At 1 2 o'clock M. 
)" I o'clock, H. M. f " 2 o'clock. P. M. 
3 o'clock, P. M. I 4 o'clock, P. M. 

The Cars drawn by hor 


usual, from Philadelphia at 9 o'clock, A. M., 
from Geriaantown at !0 o'clock, A, M., and at the 
above mentioned hours when the weather it not fair. 
The points of starting, are from the Depot, at the 
corner of Green and Ninth street,, Philadelphia; and 
From the Main street, near *he centre, of (ierroan- 
town. Whole Cars can be tdkea. Tickets, 25 
eents. nov 243t 

This announcement did not mean that in wet weather horses 
would be attached to the locomotive to aid it in drawing the train, 
but that the usual horse cars would be employed in making the 
trips upon the road without the engine. 

Upon making the first trip to Germantown with a passenger 
train with the "Ironsides," one of the drivers slipped upon the 
axle, causing the wheels to track less than the gauge of the road 
and drop in between the rails. It was also discovered that the 


valve arrangement of the pumps was defective, and they failed 
to supply the boiler with water. The shifting of the driving 
wheel upon the axle fastened the eccentric, so that it would not 
operate in backward motion. These mishaps caused delay, and 
prevented the engine from reaching its destination, to the great 
disappointment of all concerned. They were corrected in a few 
days, and the machine was used in experimenting upon its 
efficiency, making occasional trips with trains to Germantown. 
The road had an ascending grade, nearly uniform, of thirty-two 
feet per mile, and for the last half mile of forty-five feet per mile, 
and it was found that the engine was too light for the business 
of the road upon these grades. 

Such was Mr. Baldwin's first locomotive; and it is related of 
him that his discouragement at the difficulties which he had 
undergone in building it, and in finally procuring a settlement for 
it, was such that he remarked to one of his friends, with much 
decision, "That is our last locomotive." 

It was some time before he received an order for another, but 
meanwhile the subject had become singularly fascinating to him, 
and occupied his mind so fully that he was eager to work out his 
new ideas in a tangible form. 

Shortly after the "Ironsides" had been placed on the Ger- 
mantown road, Mr. E. L. Miller, of Charleston, S. C., came to 
Philadelphia and made a careful examination of 
the machine. Mr. Miller had, in 1830, contracted 
to furnish a locomotive to the Charleston and 
Hamburg Railroad Company, and accordingly 
the engine "Best Friend" had been built under 
his direction at the West Point Foundry, New 
York. After inspecting the "Ironsides," he sug- 
gested to Mr. Baldwin to visit the Mohawk and 
Hudson Railroad, and examine an English loco- 
motive which had been placed on that road in 
July, 1831, by Messrs. Robert Stephenson & Co., 
of Newcastle, England. It was originally a four- 
HALF-CRANK wheeled engine of the "Planet" type, with hori- 
zontal cylinders and crank axle. The front wheels of this engine 
were removed about a year after the machine was put at work, 



and a four-wheeled swiveling or "bogie" truck substituted. The 
result of Mr. Baldwin's investigations was the adoption of this 
design, but with some important improvements. Among these 
was the "half-crank," which he devised on his return from this 
trip, and which he patented September 10, 1834. In this form 
of crank, the outer arm is omitted, and the wrist is fixed in a 
spoke of the wheel. In other words, the wheel itself formed one 
arm of the crank. The result sought and gained was that the 
cranks were strengthened, and, being at the extremities of the 
axle, the boiler could be made larger in diameter and placed 
lower. The driving axle could also be placed back of the fire- 
box; the connecting rods passing by the sides of the firebox 
and taking hold inside of the wheels. This arrangement of the 
crank also involved the placing of the cylinders outside the 
smokebox, as was done on the "Ironsides." 

By the time the order for the second locomotive was received, 
Mr. Baldwin had matured this device and was prepared to 
embody it in practical form. The order came from Mr. E. L. 
Miller, in behalf of the 
Charleston and Hamburg 
Railroad Company, and the 
engine bore his name, and 
was completed February 18, 
1834. It was on six wheels ; 
one pair being drivers, four 
and one-half feet in diam- 
eter, with half-crank axle 
placed back of the firebox 
as above described, and the 
four front wheels combined 
in a swiveling truck. The driving wheels, it should be observed, 
were cast in solid bell metal. The combined wood and iron 
wheels used on the "Ironsides" had proved objectionable, 
and Mr. Baldwin, in his endeavors to find a satisfactory sub- 
stitute, had recourse to brass. June 29, 1833, he took out a patent 
for a cast-brass wheel, his idea being that by varying the hardness 
of the metal the adhesion of the drivers on the rails could be 
increased or diminished at will. The brass wheels on the "Miller," 



however, soon wore out, and the experiment with this metal was 
not repeated. The "E. L. Miller" had cylinders ten inches in 
diameter; stroke of piston, sixteen inches; and weighed, with 
water in the boiler, seven tons eight hundred-weight. The 
boiler had a high dome over the firebox; and this form of con- 
struction, it may be noted, was followed, with a few exceptions, 
for many years. 

The valve motion was given by a single fixed eccentric for 
each cylinder. Each eccentric strap had two arms attached to 
it, one above and the other below, and, as the driving axle was 
back of the firebox, these arms were prolonged backward under 
the footboard, with a hook on the inner side of the end of each. 
The rock shaft had arms above and below its axis, and the hooks 
of the two rods of each eccentric were moved by hand levers 
so as to engage with either arm, thus producing backward or 
forward gear. This form of single eccentric, peculiar to Mr. 
Baldwin, was in the interest of simplicity in the working parts, 
and was adhered to for some years. It gave rise to an animated 
controversy among mechanics as to whether, with its use, it was 
possible to get a lead on the valve in both directions. Many 
maintained that this was impracticable; but Mr. Baldwin demon- 
strated by actual experience that the reverse was the case. 

Meanwhile the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania had given 
Mr. Baldwin an order for a locomotive for the State Road, as it 
was then called, from Philadelphia to Columbia, which, up to that 
time, had been worked by horses. This engine, called the "Lan- 
caster," was completed in June, 1834. It was similar to the 
"Miller," and weighed seventeen thousand pounds. After it 
was placed in service, the records show that it hauled at one time 
nineteen loaded burden cars over the highest grades between 
Philadelphia and Columbia. This was characterized at that time 
by the officers of the road as an "unprecedented performance." 
The success of the machine on its trial trips was such that the 
Legislature decided to adopt steam power for working the road , 
and Mr. Baldwin received orders for several additional locomo- 
tives. Two others were accordingly delivered to the State in 
September and November respectively of that year, and one was 
also built and delivered to the Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad 



Company during the same season. This latter engine, which was 
put in service October 21, 1834, averaged twenty-one thousand 
miles per year to September 15, 1840. 

Five locomotives were thus completed in 1834, and the new 
business was fairly under way. The building in Lodge Alley, to 
which Mr. Baldwin had removed from Minor Street, and where 


these engines were constructed, began to be found too contracted, 
and another removal was decided upon. A location on Broad 
and Hamilton Streets (the site, in part, of the present works) 
was selected, and a three-story L-shaped brick building, fronting 
on both streets, erected. This was completed and the business 
removed to it during the following year (1835). Mr. Baldwin's 
stationary engine, described on page 8, was placed in service in 


the new shop by Mr. Andrew C. Vauclain, father of Mr. Samuel 
M. Vauclain, who is now President of the Company. The 
original building was partially destroyed by fire in 1884, and was 
replaced by a four-story brick structure. 

These early locomotives, built in 1834, were the types of Mr. 
Baldwin's practice for some years. All, or nearly all of them, 
embraced several important devices, which were the results of 
his study and experiments up to that time. The devices referred 
to were patented September 10, 1834, and the same patent 
covered the following four inventions, viz.: 

1. The half-crank, and method of attaching it to the driving 
wheel. (This has already been described.) 

2. A new mode of constructing the wheels of locomotive 
engines and cars. In this the hub and spokes were of cast iron, 
cast together. The spokes were cast without a rim, and ter- 
minated in segment flanges, each spoke having a separate flange 
disconnected from its neighbors. By this means, it was claimed, 
the injurious effect of the unequal expansion of the materials 
composing the wheels was lessened or altogether prevented. The 
flanges bore against wooden felloes, made in two thicknesses, and 
put together so as to break joints. Tenons or pins projected 
from the flanges into openings made in the wooden felloes, to 
keep them in place. Around the whole the tire was passed and 
secured by bolts. The sketch on page 17 shows the device. 

3. A new mode of forming the joints of steam and other 
tubes. This was Mr. Baldwin's invention of ground joints for 
steam pipes, which was a very valuable improvement over pre- 
vious methods of making joints with red-lead packing, and 
which rendered it possible to carry a much higher pressure of 

4. A new mode of forming the joints and other parts of the 
supply pump, and of locating the pump itself. This invention 
consisted in making the single guide bar hollow and using it for 
the pump barrel. The pump plunger was attached to the piston 
rod at a socket or sleeve formed for the purpose, and the hol- 
low guide bar terminated in the vertical pump chamber. This 
chamber was made in two pieces, joined about midway between 
the induction and eduction pipes. This joint was ground steam- 



tight, as were also the joints of the induction pipe with the 
bottom of the lower chamber, and the flange of the eduction pipe 
with the top of the upper chamber. All these parts were held 
together by a stirrup with a set-screw in its arched top, and the 
arrangement was such that by simply unscrewing this set-screw 
the different sections of the chamber, with all the valves, could 
be taken apart for cleaning or adjusting. The cut below illus- 
trates the device. 

It is probable that the five engines built during 1834 em- 
bodied all, or nearly all, these devices. They all had the half- 


crank, the ground joints for steam pipes (which were first made 
by Mr. Baldwin in 1833), and the pump formed in the guide bar, 
and all had the four-wheeled truck in front, and a single pair of 
drivers back of the firebox. On this position of the driving 
wheels Mr. Baldwin laid great stress, as it made a more even 
distribution of the weight, throwing about one-half on the drivers 
and one-half on the four-wheeled truck. It also extended the 
wheel base, making the engine much steadier and less damaging 
to the track. Mr. William Norris, who had established a loco- 
motive works in Philadelphia in 1832, was at this time building 
a six-wheeled engine with a truck in front and the driving wheels 


placed in front of the firebox. Considerable rivalry naturally 
existed between the two manufacturers as to the comparative 
merits of their respective plans. In Mr. Norris' engine, the posi- 
tion of the driving axle in front of the firebox threw on it more 
of the weight of the engine, and thus increased the adhesion and 
the tractive power. Mr. Baldwin, however, maintained the 
superiority of his plan, as giving a better distribution of the weight 
and a longer wheel base, and consequently rendering the machine 
less destructive to the track. As the iron rails then in use were 
generally light, and much of the track was of wood, this feature 
was of some importance. 

To the use of the ground joint for steam pipes, however, 
much of the success of his early engines was due. The English 
builders were making locomotives with canvas and red-lead joints, 
permitting a steam pressure of only sixty pounds per square inch 
to be carried, while Mr. Baldwin's machines were worked at one 
hundred and twenty pounds with ease. Several locomotives 
imported from England at about this period by the Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania for the State Road (three of which were 
made by Stephenson) had canvas and red-lead joints, and their 
efficiency was so much less than that of the Baldwin engines, 
on account of this and other features of construction, that they 
were soon laid aside or sold. 

In June, 1834, a patent was issued to Mr. E. L. Miller, by 
whom Mr. Baldwin's second engine was ordered, for a method of 
increasing the adhesion of a locomotive by throwing a part of the 
weight of the tender on the rear of the engine, thus increasing 
the weight on the drivers. Mr. Baldwin adopted this device 
on an engine built for the Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad 
Company, May, 1835, and thereafter used it largely, paying one 
hundred dollars royalty for each engine. Eventually (May 6, 
1839) he bought the patent for nine thousand dollars, evidently 
considering that the device was especially valuable, if not indis- 
pensable, in order to render his engine as powerful, when required, 
as other patterns having the driving wheels in front of the fire- 
box, and therefore utilizing more of the weight of the engine for 

In making the truck and tender wheels of these early locomo- 


tives, the hubs were cast in three pieces and afterward banded 
with wrought iron, the interstices being filled with spelter. This 
method of construction was adopted on account of the difficulty 
then found in casting a chilled wheel in one solid piece. 

Early in 1835, the new shop on Broad Street was completed 
and occupied. Mr. Baldwin's attention was thenceforward given 
to locomotive building exclusively, except that a stationary 
engine was occasionally constructed. 

In May, 1835, his eleventh locomotive, the "Black Hawk," 
was delivered to the Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad Com- 
pany. This was the first outside-connected engine of his build. 
It was also the first engine on which the Miller device of attach- 
ing part of the weight of the tender to the engine was employed. 
On the eighteenth engine, the "Brandywine," built for the Phila- 
delphia and Columbia Railroad Company, brass tires were used 
on the driving wheels, for the purpose of obtaining more adhesion ; 
but they wore out rapidly and were replaced with iron. 

April 3, 1835, Mr. Baldwin took out a patent for certain im- 
provements in the wheels and tubes of locomotive engines. That 
relating to the wheels provided for casting the hub and spokes 
together, and having the spokes terminate in segments of a rim, 
as described in his patent of September 10, 1834. Between the 
ends of the spokes and the tires, wood was interposed, and the 
tire might be either of wrought iron or of chilled cast iron. The 
intention was expressed of making the tire usually of cast iron 
chilled. The main object, however, was declared to be the inter- 
position between the spokes and the rim of a layer of wood or 
other substance possessing some degree of elasticity. This 
method of making driving wheels was followed for several years, 
the tires being made with a shoulder. See illustration on page 22. 

The improvement in locomotive tubes consisted in driving a 
copper ferrule or thimble on the outside of the end of the tube, 
and soldering it in place, instead of driving a ferrule into the 
tube as had previously been the practice. The object of the latter 
method had been to make a tight joint with the tube sheet; but 
by putting the ferrule on the outside of the tube, not only was 
the joint made as tight as before, but the tube was strengthened, 
and left unobstructed throughout to the full extent of its diam- 



eter. This method of setting flues has been generally followed in 
the Works from that date to the present, the only difference 
being that, at this time, with iron or steel tubes, the end is 
swedged down, the copper ferrule brazed on, and the end of the 
tube turned or riveted over against the copper thimble and the 
flue sheet to make the joint perfect. 


Fourteen engines were constructed in 1835; forty in 1836; 
forty in 1837; twenty-three in 1838; twenty-six in 1839, and 
nine in 1840. During all these years the general design con- 
tinued the same; but, in compliance with the demand for more 
power, three sizes were furnished, as follows: 

First class Cylinders, 12^ X 16; weight loaded, 26,000 pounds. 
Second class " 12 X 16; " " 23,000 " 

Third class " 10K X 16; " " 20,000 " 

Mr. Baldwin fully believed, in 1838, that the first class 
engine was as heavy as would be called for, and he declared that 
it was as large as he intended to make. Most of the engines 


were built with the half-crank, but occasionally an outside-con- 
nected machine was turned out. These latter, however, failed 
to give as complete satisfaction as the half-crank machine. The 
drivers were generally four and one-half feet in diameter. 

A patent was issued to Mr. Baldwin, August 17, 1835, for 
his device of cylindrical pedestals. In this method of con- 
struction, the pedestal was of cast iron, and was bored in a lathe 
so as to form two concave jaws. The boxes were also turned in 
a lathe so that their vertical ends were cylindrical, and they were 
thus fitted in the pedestals. This method of fitting up pedestals 
and boxes was cheap and effective, and was used for some years 
for the driving and tender wheels. 

As showing the estimation in which these early engines were 
held, it may not be out of place to refer to the opinions of some 
of the railroad managers of that period. 

Mr. L. A. Sykes, engineer of the New Jersey Transportation 
Company, under date of June 12, 1838, wrote that he could draw 
with his engines twenty four-wheeled cars with twenty-six pass- 
engers each, at a speed of twenty to twenty-five miles per hour, 
over grades of twenty-six feet per mile. "As to simplicity of 
construction," he adds, "small liability to get out of order, 
economy of repairs, and ease to the road, I fully believe Mr. 
Baldwin's engines stand unrivalled. I consider the simplicity of 
the engine, the arrangement of the working parts, and the distri- 
bution of the weight, far superior to any engine I have ever seen, 
either of American or English manufacture, and I have not the 
least hesitation in saying that Mr. Baldwin's engine will do the 
same amount of work with much less repairs, either to the engine 
or the track, than any other engine in use." 

L. G. Cannon, President of the Rensselaer and Saratoga 
Railroad Company, writes: "Your engines will, in performance 
and cost of repairs, bear comparison with any other engine made 
in this or any other country." 

Some of Mr. Baldwin's engines on the State Road, in 1837, 
cost, for repairs, only from one and two-tenths to one and 
six-tenths cents per mile. It is noted that the engine "West 
Chester," on the same road, weighing twenty thousand seven 
hundred and thirty-five pounds (ten thousand four hundred and 


seventy-five on drivers), drew fifty-one cars (four-wheeled), 
weighing two hundred and eighty-nine net tons, over the road, 
some of the track being of wood covered with strap-rail. 

The financial difficulties of 1836 and 1837, which brought 
ruin upon so many, did not leave Mr. Baldwin unscathed. His 
embarrassments became so great that he was unable to proceed, 
and was forced to call his creditors together for a settlement. 
After offering to surrender all his property, his shop, tools, house 
and everything, if they so desired all of which would realize 
only about twenty-five per cent, of their claims he proposed 
to them that they should permit him to go on with the business, 
and in three years he would pay the full amount of all claims, 
principal and interest. This was finally acceded to, and the 
promise was in effect fulfilled, although not without an extension 
of two years beyond the time originally proposed. 

In May, 1837, the number of hands employed was three 
hundred, but this number was reduced weekly, owing to the 
falling off in the demand for engines. 

These financial troubles had their effect on the demand for 
locomotives, as will be seen in the decrease in the number built 
in 1838, 1839 and 1840; and this result was furthered by the 
establishment of several other locomotive works, and the intro- 
duction of other patterns of engines. 

The changes and improvements in details made during these 
years may be summed up as follows: 

The subject of burning anthracite coal had engaged much 
attention. In October, 1836, Mr. Baldwin secured a patent for a 
grate or fireplace which could be detached from the engine at 
pleasure, and a new one with a fresh coal fire substituted. The 
intention was to have the grate with freshly ignited coal all ready 
for the engine on its arrival at a station, and placed between the 
rails over suitable levers, by which it could be attached quickly 
to the firebox. It is needless to say that this was never prac- 
ticed. In January, 1838, however, Mr. Baldwin was experiment- 
ing with the consumption of coal on the German town road, and in 
July of the same year the records show that he was making a 
locomotive to burn coal, part of the arrangement being to blow 
the fire with a fan. 


The first locomotives for export were built during this year. 
They were shipped to Cuba, to the order of Alfred Cruger, and 
bore the builder's numbers 104 and 105. These locomotives were 
completed in the spring and summer, and were followed by a 
third later in the year. 

Up to 1838, Mr. Baldwin had made both driving and truck 
wheels with wrought tires, but during that year chilled wheels 
for engine and tender trucks were adopted. His tires were 
furnished by Messrs. S. Vail & Son, Morristown, N. J., who 
made the only tires then obtainable in America. They were 
very thin, being only one inch to one and one-half inches thick; 
and Mr. Baldwin, in importing some tires from England at that 
time, insisted on their being made double the ordinary thickness. 
The manufacturers at first objected and ridiculed the idea, the 
practice being to use two tires when extra thickness was wanted, 
but finally they consented to meet his requirements. 

All his engines thus far had the single eccentric for each 
valve, but at about this period double eccentrics were adopted, 
each terminating in a straight hook, and reversed by hand levers. 

At this early period, Mr. Baldwin had begun to feel the 
necessity of making all like parts of locomotives of the same class 
in such manner as to be absolutely interchangeable. Steps were 
taken in this direction, but it was not until many years after- 
ward that the system of standard gauges was perfected, which 
soon became a distinguishing feature in the establishment. 

In March, 1839, Mr. Baldwin's records show that he was 
building a number of outside-connected engines, and had suc- 
ceeded in making them strong and durable. He was also making 
a new chilled wheel, and one whichjie thought would not break. 

On the one hundred and thirty-sixth locomotive, completed 
October 18, 1839, for the Philadelphia, Germantown and Norris- 
town Railroad, the old pattern of wooden frame was abandoned, 
and no outside frame whatever was employed the machinery, 
as well as the truck and the pedestals of the driving axles, being 
attached directly to the naked boiler. The wooden frame thence- 
forward disappeared gradually, and an iron frame took its place. 
Another innovation was the adoption of eight-wheeled tenders, 
the first of which was built at about this period. 


On April 8, 1839, Mr. Baldwin associated with himself Messrs. 
Vail & Hufty, and the business was conducted under the firm 
name of Baldwin, Vail & Hufty until 1841, when Mr. Hufty with- 
drew, and Baldwin & Vail continued the copartnership until 1842. 

The time had now arrived when the increase of business on 
railroads demanded more powerful locomotives. It had for some 
years been felt that for freight traffic the engine with one pair of 
drivers was insufficient. Mr. Baldwin's engine had the single 
pair of drivers placed back of the firebox; that made by Mr. 
Norris, one pair in front of the firebox. An engine with two 
pairs of drivers, one pair in front and one pair behind the firebox, 
was the next logical step, and Mr. Henry R. Campbell, of Phila- 
delphia, was the first to carry this design into execution. Mr. 
Campbell was the Chief Engineer of the Germantown Railroad 
when the "Ironsides" was placed on that line, and had since 
given much attention to the subject of locomotive construction. 
February 5, 1836, Mr. Campbell secured a patent for an eight- 
wheeled engine with four drivers connected, and a four-wheeled 
truck in front; and subsequently contracted with James Brooks, 
of Philadelphia, to build for him such a machine. The work 
was begun March 16, 1836, and the engine was completed 
May 8, 1837. This was the first eight-wheeled engine of this 
design, and from it the American type locomotive of today 
takes its origin. The engine lacked, however, one essential 
feature; there were no equalizing beams between the drivers, 
and nothing but the ordinary steel springs over each journal 
of the driving axles to equalize the weight upon them. It 
remained for Messrs. Eastwick & Harrison to supply this 
deficiency; and in 1837 that firm constructed at their shop in 
Philadelphia, a locomotive on this plan, but with the driving 
axles running in a separate square frame, connected to the main 
frame above it by a single central bearing on each side. This 
engine had cylinders twelve by eighteen, four coupled driving 
wheels, forty-four inches in diameter, carrying eight of the twelve 
tons constituting the total weight. Subsequently, Mr. Joseph 
Harrison, Jr., of the same firm, substituted "equalizing beams" 
on engines of this plan afterward constructed by them, sub- 
stantially in the same manner as since generally employed. 


In the American Railroad Journal of July 30, 1836, a wood- 
cut showing Mr. Campbell's engine, together with an elaborate 
calculation of the effective power of an engine on this plan, by 
William J. Lewis, Esq., Civil Engineer, was published, with a 
table showing its performance upon grades ranging from a dead 
level to a rise of one hundred feet per mile. Mr. Campbell 
stated that his experience at that time (1835-36) convinced him 
that grades of one hundred feet rise per mile would, if roads 
were judiciously located, carry railroads over any of the moun- 
tain passes in America, without the use of planes with stationary 
steam power, or, as a general rule, of costly tunnels an opinion 
very extensively verified by the experience of the country since 
that date. 

A step had thus been taken toward a plan of locomotive 
having more adhesive power. Mr. Baldwin, however, was slow 
to adopt the new design. He naturally regarded innovations 
with distrust. He had done much to perfect the old pattern of 
engine, and had built over a hundred of them, which were in suc- 
cessful operation on various railroads. Many of the details were 
the subjects of his several patents, and had been greatly simplified 
in his practice. In fact, simplicity in all the working parts had 
been so largely his aim, that it was natural that he should 
distrust any plan involving additional machinery, and he regarded 
the new design as only an experiment at best. In November, 
1838, he wrote to a correspondent that he did not think there 
was any advantage in the eight-wheeled engine. There being 
three points in contact, it could not turn a curve, he argued, 
without slipping one or the other pair of wheels sideways. 
Another objection was in the multiplicity of machinery and the 
difficulty in maintaining four driving wheels all of exactly the 
same size. Some means, however, of getting more adhesion 
must be had, and the result of his reflections upon this subject 
was the project of a "geared engine." In August, 1839, he 
took steps to secure a patent for such a machine, and December 
31, 1840, letters patent were granted him for the device. In this 
engine an independent shaft or axle was placed between the two 
axles of the truck, and connected by cranks and coupling rods 
with cranks on the outside of the driving wheels. This shaft 


had a central cog-wheel engaging on each side with intermediate 
cog-wheels, which in turn geared into cog-wheels on each truck 
axle. The intermediate cog-wheels had wide teeth, so that the 
truck could pivot while the main shaft remained parallel with the 
driving axle. The diameters of the cog-wheels were, of course, 
in such proportion to the driving and truck wheels that the 
latter should revolve as much oftener than the drivers as their 
smaller size might require. Of the success of this machine for 
freight service, Mr. Baldwin was very sanguine. One was 
put in hand at once, completed in August, 1841, and eventually 
sold to the Sugarloaf Coal Company. It was an inside-con- 
nected engine, weighing thirty thousand pounds, of which eleven 
thousand seven hundred and seventy-five pounds were on the 
drivers, and eighteen thousand three hundred and thirty-five on 
the truck. The driving wheels were forty-four and the truck 
wheels thirty-three inches in diameter. The cylinders were thir- 
teen inches in diameter by sixteen inches stroke. On a trial of 
the engine upon the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, it hauled 
five hundred and ninety tons from Reading to Philadelphia 
a distance of fifty-four miles in five hours and twenty-two 
minutes. The superintendent of the road, in writing of the 
trial, remarked that this train was unprecedented in length 
and weight both in America and Europe. The performance 
was noticed in favorable terms by the Philadelphia newspapers, 
and was made the subject of a report by the Committee on 
Science and Arts of the Franklin Institute, who strongly recom- 
mended this plan of engine for freight service. The success 
of the trial led Mr. Baldwin at first to believe that the geared 
engine would be generally adopted for freight traffic; but in 
this he was disappointed. No further demand was made for 
such machines, and no more of them were built. 

In 1840, Mr. Baldwin received an order, through August 
Belmont, Esq., of New York, for a locomotive for Austria, and 
had nearly completed one which was calculated to do the work 
required, when he learned that only sixty pounds pressure of 
steam was admissible, whereas his engine was designed to use 
steam at one hundred pounds and over. He accordingly con- 
structed another, meeting this requirement, and shipped it in the 


following year. This engine, it may be noted, had a kind of 
link motion, agreeably to the specification received, and was the 
first of his make upon which the link was introduced. 

Mr. Baldwin's patent of December 31, 1840, already referred 
to as covering his geared engine, embraced several other devices, 
as follows: 

1. A method of operating a fan, or blowing wheel, for the 
purpose of blowing the fire. The fan was to be placed under 
the footboard, and driven by the friction of a grooved pulley in 
contact with the flange of the driving wheel. 

2. The substitution of a metallic stuffing consisting of 
wire, for the hemp, wool, or other material which had been 
employed in stuffing boxes. 

3. The placing of the springs of the engine truck so as to 
obviate the evil of the locking of the wheels when the truck 
frame vibrates from the center pin vertically. Spiral as well as 
semi-elliptic springs, placed at each end of the truck frame, were 
specified. The spiral spring is described as received in two cups, 
one above and one below. The cups were connected together 
at their centers, by a pin upon one and a socket in the other, so 
that the cups could approach toward or recede from each other 
and still preserve their parallelism. 

4. An improvement in the manner of constructing the iron 
frames of locomotives, by making the pedestals in one piece with, 
and constituting part of, the frames. 

5. The employment of spiral springs in connection with 
cylindrical pedestals and boxes. A single spiral was at first 
used, but, not proving sufficiently strong, a combination or nest 
of spirals curving alternately in opposite directions was after- 
ward employed. Each spiral had its bearing in a spiral recess 
in the pedestal. 

In the specification of this patent a change in the method of 
making cylindrical pedestals and boxes is noted. Instead of 
boring and turning them in a lathe, they were cast to the required 
shape in chills. This method of construction was used for a 
time, but eventually a return was made to the original plan, as 
giving a more accurate job. 

In 1842, Mr. Baldwin constructed, under an arrangement 



with Mr. Ross Winans, three locomotives for the Western Rail- 
road of Massachusetts, on a plan which had been designed by 
that gentleman for freight traffic. These machines had upright 


boilers and horizontal cylinders, which worked cranks on a shaft 
bearing cog-wheels engaging with other cog-wheels on an inter- 
mediate shaft. This latter shaft had cranks coupled to four 
driving wheels on each side. These engines were constructed 
to burn anthracite coal. Their peculiarly uncouth appearance 
earned for them the name of "crabs," and they were but short- 
lived in service. 


But to return to the progress of Mr. Baldwin's locomotive 
practice. Only eight engines were built in 1841. The geared 
engine had not proved a success. It was unsatisfactory, as well 
to its designer as to the railroad community. The problem of 
utilizing more or all of the weight of the engine for adhesion 


remained, in Mr. Baldwin's view, yet to be solved. The plan 
of coupling four or six wheels had long before been adopted in 
England, but on the short curves prevalent on American railroads 
he felt that something more was necessary. The wheels must not 
only be coupled, but at the same time must be free to adapt 
themselves to a curve. These two conditions were apparently in- 
compatible, and to reconcile these inconsistencies was the task 
which Mr. Baldwin set himself to accomplish. He undertook it, 
too, at a time when his business had fallen off greatly and he was 
involved in the most serious financial embarrassments. The 
problem was constantly before him, and at length, during a 
sleepless night, its solution flashed across his mind. The plan 
so long sought for, and which, subsequently more than any other 
of his improvements or inventions, contributed to the foundation 
of his fortune, was his well-known six-wheels-connected locomo- 

D U U 


tive with the four front drivers combined in a flexible truck. For 
this machine Mr. Baldwin secured a patent, August 25, 1842. 
Its principal characteristic features are now matters of history, 
but they deserve here a brief mention. The engine was on six 
wheels, all connected as drivers. The rear wheels were placed 
rigidly in the frames, usually behind the firebox, with inside 
bearings. The cylinders were inclined, and with outside connec- 
tions. The four remaining wheels had inside journals running 
in boxes held by two wide and deep wrought-iron beams, one on 
each side. These beams were unconnected, and entirely independ- 
ent of each other. The pedestals formed in them were bored out 
cylindrically, and into them cylindrical boxes, as patented by him 
in 1835, were fitted. The engine frame on each side was directly 
over the beam, and a spherical pin, running down from the frame, 
bore in a socket in the beam midway between the two axles. It 


will thus be seen that each side beam independently could turn 
horizontally or vertically under the spherical pin, and the cylin- 
drical boxes could also turn in the pedestals. Hence, in passing a 
curve, the middle pair of drivers could move laterally in one 
direction say to the right while the front pair could move in 
the opposite direction, or to the left; the two axles all the while 
remaining parallel to each other and to the rear driving axle. 
The operation of these beams was therefore like that of the 
parallel ruler. On a straight line the two beams and the two 
axles formed a rectangle; on curves, a parallelogram, the angles 
varying with the degree of curvature. The coupling rods were 
made with cylindrical brasses, thus forming ball-and-socket 
joints, to enable them to accommodate themselves to the lateral 
movements of the wheels. Colburn, in his "Locomotive Engi- 
neering," remarks of this arrangement of rods as follows: 

"Geometrically, no doubt, this combination of wheels could only work 
properly around curves by a lengthening and shortening of the rods which 
served to couple the principal pair of driving wheels with the hind truck 
wheels. But if the coupling rods from the principal pair of driving wheels 
be five feet long, and if the beams of the truck frame be four feet long (the 
radius of curve described by the axle boxes around the spherical side bearings 
being two feet), then the total corresponding lengthening of the coupling rods, 
in order to allow the hind truck wheels to move one inch to one side, and the 
front wheels of the truck one inch to the other side of their normal position 
on a straight line would be /60 2 + 1 2 60+24 ^24* 1* =0.0275 inch, or 
less than one thirty-second of an inch. And if only one pair of driving wheels 
were thus coupled with a four-wheeled truck, the total wheel base being nine 
feet, the motion permitted by this slight elongation of the coupling rods (an 
elongation provided for by a trifling slackness in the brasses) would enable 
three pairs of wheels to stand without binding in a curve of only one hundred 
feet radius." 

The first engine of the new plan was finished early in Decem- 
ber, 1842, being one of fourteen engines constructed in that year, 
and was sent to the Georgia Railroad, on the order of Mr. J. 
Edgar Thomson, then Chief Engineer and Superintendent of 
that line. It weighed twelve tons, and drew, besides its own 
weight, two hundred and fifty tons up a grade of thirty-six feet to 
the mile. 

Other orders soon followed. The new machine was received 
generally with great favor. The loads hauled by it exceeded 


anything so far known in American railroad practice, and saga- 
cious managers hailed it as a means of largely reducing operating 
expenses. On the Central Railroad of Georgia, one of these 
twelve-ton engines drew nineteen eight-wheeled cars, with seven 
hundred and fifty bales of cotton, each bale weighing four hun- 
dred and fifty pounds, over maximum grades of thirty feet per 
mile, and the manager of the road declared that it could readily 
take one thousand bales. On the Philadelphia and Reading Rail- 
road a similar engine of eighteen tons weight drew one hundred 
and fifty loaded cars (total weight of cars and lading, one thou- 
sand one hundred and thirty tons) from Schuylkill Haven to 
Philadelphia, at a speed of seven miles per hour. The regular 
load was one hundred loaded cars, which were hauled at a speed 
of from twelve to fifteen miles per hour on a level. 

The following extract from a letter, dated August 10, 1844, 
of Mr. G. A. Nicolls, then superintendent of that line, gives the 
particulars of the performance of these machines, and shows the 
estimation in which they were held : 

"We have had two of these engines in operation for about four weeks. 
Each engine weighs about forty thousand pounds with water and fuel, equally 
distributed on six wheels, all of which are coupled, thus gaining the whole 
adhesion of the engine's weight. Their cylinders are fifteen by eighteen inches. 

"The daily allotted load of each of these engines is one hundred coal 
cars, each loaded with three and six-tenths tons of coal, and weighing two 
and fifteen one-hundredths tons each, empty; making a net weight of three 
hundred and sixty tons of coal carried, and a gross weight of train of five 
hundred and seventy-five tons, all of two thousand two hundred and forty 

"This train is hauled over the ninety-four miles of the road, half of 
which is level, at the rate of twelve miles per hour; and with it the engine 
is able to make fourteen to fifteen miles per hour on a level. 

"Were all the cars on the road of sufficient strength, and making the 
trip by daylight, nearly one-half being now performed at night, I have no 
doubt of these engines being quite equal to a load of eight hundred tons 
gross, as their average daily performance on any of the levels of our road, 
some of which are eight miles long. 

"In strength of make, quality of workmanship, finish, and proportion 
of parts, I consider them equal to any, and superior to most, freight engines 
I have seen. They are remarkably easy on the rails, either in their vertical 
or horizontal action, from the equalization of their weight, and the improved 
truck under the forward part of the engine. This latter adapts itself to all 


the curves of the road, including some of seven hundred and sixteen feet 
radius in the main track, and moves with great ease around our turning Y 
curves at Richmond, of about three hundred feet radius. 

"I consider these engines as near perfection, in the arrangement of 
their parts, and their general efficiency, as the present improvements in 
machinery and the locomotive engine will admit of. They are saving us 
thirty per cent, in every trip on the former cost of motive or engine power." 

But the flexible beam truck also enabled Mr. Baldwin to 
meet the demand for an engine with four .drivers connected. 
Other builders were making engines with four drivers and a four- 
wheeled truck, of the present American standard type. To 
compete with this design, Mr. Baldwin modified his six- wheels- 
connected engine by connecting only two of the three pairs 
of wheels as drivers, making the forward wheels of smaller 
diameter as leading wheels, but combining them with the front 
drivers in a flexible beam truck. The first engine on this plan 
was sent to the Erie and Kalamazoo Railroad, in October, 1843, 
and gave great satisfaction. The superintendent of the road was 
enthusiastic in its praise, and wrote to Mr. Baldwin that he 
doubted "if anything could be got up which would answer the 
business of the road so well." One was also sent to the Utica 
and Schenectady Railroad a few weeks later, of which the super- 
intendent remarked that "it worked beautifully, and there were 
not wagons enough to give it a full load." In this plan the 
leading wheels were usually made thirty-six and the drivers fifty- 
four inches in diameter. 

This machine, of course, came in competition with the 
eight-wheeled engine having four drivers, and Mr. Baldwin 
claimed for his plan a decided superiority. In each case about 
two-thirds of the total weight was carried on the four drivers, 
and Mr. Baldwin maintained that his engine, having only six 
instead of eight wheels, was simpler and more effective. 

At about this period Mr. Baldwin's attention was called by 
Mr. Levi Bissell to an "Air-spring" which the latter had devised, 
and which it was imagined was destined to be a cheap, effective, 
and perpetual spring. The device consisted of a small cylinder 
placed above the frame over the axle box, and having a piston 
fitted air-tight into it. The piston rod was to bear on the axle 
box and the proper quantity of air was to be pumped into the 


cylinder above the piston, and the cylinder then hermetically 
closed. The piston had a leather packing which was to be 
kept moist by some fluid (molasses was proposed) previously 
introduced into the cylinder. Mr. Baldwin at first proposed to 
equalize the weight between the two pairs of drivers by connect- 
ing two air springs on each side by a pipe, the use of an equaliz- 
ing beam being covered by Messrs. Eastwick & Harrison's patent. 
The air springs were found, however, not to work practically, 
and were never applied. It may be added that a model of an 
equalizing air spring was exhibited by Mr. Joseph Harrison, Jr., 
at the Franklin Institute, in 1838 or 1839. 

With the introduction of the new machine, business began 
at once to revive, and the tide of prosperity turned once more in 
Mr. Baldwin's favor. Twelve engines were constructed in 1843, 
all but four of them of the new pattern; twenty-two engines in 
1844, all of the new pattern; and twenty-seven in 1845. Three 
of this number were of the old type, with one pair of drivers, 
but from that time forward the old pattern with the single pair 
of drivers disappeared from the practice of the establishment, 
save occasionally for exceptional purposes. 

In 1842, the partnership with Mr. Vail was dissolved, and 
Mr. Asa Whitney, who had been superintendent of the Mohawk 
and Hudson Railroad, became a partner with Mr. Baldwin, and 
the firm continued as Baldwin & Whitney until 1846, when the 
latter withdrew to engage in the manufacture of car wheels, 
establishing the firm of A. Whitney & Sons, Philadelphia. 

Mr. Whitney brought to the firm a railroad experience and 
thorough business talent. He introduced a system in many 
details of the management of the business, which Mr. Baldwin, 
whose mind was devoted more exclusively to mechanical sub- 
jects, had failed to establish or wholly ignored. The method at 
present in use in the establishment, of giving to each class of 
locomotives a distinctive designation, composed of a number and 
a letter, originated very shortly after Mr. Whitney's connection 
with the business. For the purpose of representing the different 
designs, sheets with engravings of locomotives were employed. 
The sheet showing the engine with one pair of drivers was 
marked B; that with two pairs, C; that with three, D; and that 


with four, E. Taking its rise from this circumstance, it became 
customary to designate as B engines those with one pair of 
drivers; as C engines, those with two pairs; as D engines, those 
with three pairs ; and as E engines, those with four pairs. Shortly 
afterward, a number, indicating the weight in gross tons, was 
added. Thus the 12 D engine was one with three pairs of 
drivers and weighing twelve tons; the 12 C, an engine of same 
weight, but with only four wheels connected. A modification 
of this method of designating the several plans and sizes is still 
in use. 

It will be observed that the classification as thus established 
began with the B engines. The letter A was reserved for an 
engine intended to run at very high speeds, and so designed that 
the driving wheels should make two revolutions for each recipro- 
cation of the pistons. This was to be accomplished by means of 
gearing. The general plan of the engine was determined in Mr. 
Baldwin's mind, but was never carried into execution. 

The adoption of the plan of six-wheels-connected engines 
opened the way at once to increasing their size. The weight 
being almost evenly distributed on six points, heavier machines 
were admissible, the weight on any one pair of drivers being 
little, if any, greater than had been the practice with the old 
plan of engine having a single pair of drivers. Hence, engines 
of eighteen and twenty tons weight were shortly introduced, and 
in 1844, three of twenty tons weight, with cylinders sixteen and 
one-half inches diameter by eighteen inches stroke, were con- 
structed for the Western Railroad of Massachusetts, and six of 
eighteen tons weight, with cylinders fifteen by eighteen, and 
drivers forty-six inches in diameter, were built for the Philadel- 
phia and Reading Railroad. It should be noted that three of 
these latter engines had iron flues. This was the first instance 
in which Mr. Baldwin had employed tubes of this material, 
although they had been previously used by others. Lap-welded 
iron flues were made by Morris, Tasker & Co., of Philadelphia, 
about 1838, and butt-welded iron tubes had previously been made 
by the same firm. Ross Winans, of Baltimore, had also made 
iron tubes by hand for locomotives of his manufacture, before 
1838. The advantage found to result from the use of iron tubes, 


apart from their less cost, was that the tubes and boiler shell, 
being of the same material, expanded and contracted alike, while 
in the case of copper tubes, the expansion of the metal by heat 
varied from that of the boiler shell, and as a consequence there 
was greater liability to leakage at the joints with the tube sheets. 
The opinion prevailed largely at that time that some advantage 
resulted in the evaporation of water, owing to the superiority of 
copper as a conductor of heat. To determine this question, an 
experiment was tried with two of the six engines referred to 
above, one of which, the "Ontario," had copper flues, and 
another, the "New England," iron flues. In other respects they 
were precisely alike. The two engines were run from Richmond 
to Mount Carbon, August 27, 1844, each drawing a train of one 
hundred and one empty cars, and returning from Mount Carbon 
to Richmond on the following day, each with one hundred 
loaded cars. The quantity of water evaporated and wood con- 
sumed was noted, with the result shown in the following table: 

Up Trip, Aug. 27, 1844 

Down Trip, Aug. 28, 1844 


(Iron Flues) 


England " 
(Iron Flues) 

Time, running 
Time, standing at stations . . . 

9h. 7m. 
4h. 2m. 


7h. 41m. 
3h. 7m. 


10h. 44m. 
2h. 12m. 


8h. 19m. 
3h. 8m. 


Cubic feet of water evaporated 
Ratio, cubic feet of water to 
a cord of wood 

The conditions of the experiments not being absolutely the 
same in each case, the results could not of course be accepted 
as entirely accurate. They seemed to show, however, no con- 
siderable difference in the evaporative efficacy of copper and iron 

The period under consideration was marked also by the intro- 
duction of the French & Baird stack, which proved at once to 
be one of the most successful spark-arresters thus far employed, 
and which was for years used almost exclusively wherever, as 
on the cot ton -carry ing railroads of the South, a thoroughly 


effective spark-arrester was required. This stack was introduced 
by Mr. Baird, then a foreman in the Works, who purchased 
the patent right of what had been known as the Grimes stack, 
and combined with it some of the features of the stack made 
by Mr. Richard French, then Master Mechanic of the German- 
town Railroad, together with certain improvements of his own. 
The cone over the straight inside pipe was made with volute 
flanges on its under side, which gave a rotary motion to the 
sparks. Around the cone was a casing about six inches smaller 
in diameter than the outside stack. Apertures were cut in the 
sides of the casing, through which the sparks in their rotary 
motion were discharged, and thus fell to the bottom of the space 
between the straight inside pipe and the outside stack. The 
opening in the top of the stack was fitted with a series of V-shaped 
iron circles perforated with numerous holes, thus presenting 
an enlarged area, through which the smoke escaped. The 
patent right for this stack was subsequently sold to Messrs. 
Radley & Hunter, and its essential principle is still used in 
the Radley & Hunter stack. The Rushton wood-burning stack, 
as now built, is a further improvement on the Radley & Hunter, 
in that the design has been simplified, the draft obstruction 
reduced, and the stack made more effective as a spark arrester. 
During the year 1844 another important feature in locomo- 
tive construction the cut-off valve was added to Mr. Baldwin's 
practice. Up to that time the valve motion had been the two 
eccentrics, with the single flat hook for each cylinder. Since 
1841, Mr. Baldwin had contemplated the addition of some device 
allowing the steam to be used expansively, and he now added 
the "half-stroke cut-off." In this device the steam chest was 
separated by a horizontal plate into an upper and a lower com- 
partment. In the upper compartment, a valve, worked by a 
separate eccentric, and having a single opening, admitted steam 
through a port in this plate to the lower steam chamber. The 
valve rod of the upper valve terminated in a notch or hook, 
which engaged with the upper arm of its rock shaft. When 
thus working, it acted as a cut-off at a fixed part of the stroke, 
determined by the setting of the eccentric. This was usually at 
half the stroke. When it was desired to dispense with the cut- 


off and work steam for the full stroke, the hook of the valve rod 
was lifted from the pin on the upper arm of the rock shaft by a 
lever worked from the footboard, and the valve rod was held in 
a notched rest fastened to the side of the boiler. This left the 
opening through the upper valve and the port in the partition 
plate open for the free passage of steam throughout the whole 
stroke. The first application of the half-stroke cut-off was made 
on the engine "Atlantic" (20 D), built for the Western Rail- 
road of Massachusetts in 1844. It at once became the practice 
to apply the cut-off on all passenger engines, while the six- and 
eight-wheels-connected freight engines were, with a few excep- 
tions, built for a time longer with the single valve admitting steam 
for the full stroke. 

In 1845, Mr. Baldwin built three locomotives for the Royal 
Railroad Company of Wiirtemberg. They were of fifteen tons 
weight, on six wheels, four of them being sixty inches in diameter 
and coupled. The front drivers were combined by the flexible 
beams into a truck with the smaller leading wheels. The 
cylinders were inclined and outside, and the connecting rods took 
hold of a half-crank axle back of the firebox. It was specified 
that these engines should have the link motion which had shortly 
before been introduced in England by the Stephensons. Mr. 
Baldwin accordingly applied a link of a peculiar character to 
suit his own ideas of the device. The link was made solid, and 
of a truncated V-section, and the block was grooved so as to fit 
and slide on the outside of the link. 

After building, during the years 1843, 1844 and 1845, ten 
four-wheels-connected engines on the plan above described, viz. : 
six wheels in all, the leading wheels and the front drivers being 
combined into a truck by the flexible beams, Mr. Baldwin finally 
adopted the present design of four drivers and a four-wheeled 
truck. Some of his customers who were favorable to the latter 
plan had ordered such machines of other builders, and Colonel 
Gadsden, President of the South Carolina Railroad Company, 
called on him in 1845 to build for that line some passenger 
engines of this pattern. He accordingly bought the patent right 
for this plan of engine of Mr. H. R. Campbell, and for the equaliz- 
ing beams used between the drivers, of Messrs. Eastwick & 


Harrison, and delivered to the South Carolina Railroad Com- 
pany, in December, 1845, his first eight-wheeled engine with 
four drivers and a four-wheeled truck. This machine had cylin- 
ders thirteen and three-quarters by eighteen inches, and drivers 
sixty inches in diameter, with the springs between them arranged 
as equalizers. Its weight was fifteen tons. It had the half-crank 
axle, the cylinders being inside the frame but outside the smoke- 
box. The inside-connected engine, counterweighting being as 
yet unknown, was admitted to be steadier in running, and hence 
more suitable for passenger service. With the completion of 
the first eight-wheeled "C" engine, Mr. Baldwin's feelings 
underwent a revulsion in favor of this plan, and his partiality for 
it became as great as had been his antipathy before. Comment- 
ing on the machine, he recorded himself as "more pleased with its 
appearance and action than any engine he had turned out." In 
addition to the three engines of this description for the South 
Carolina Railroad Company, a duplicate was sent to the Camden 
and Amboy Railroad Company, and a similar but lighter one 
to the Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad Company, shortly 
afterward. The engine for the Camden and Amboy Railroad 
Company, and perhaps the others, had the half-stroke cut-off. 

From that time forward all of his four-wheels-connected 
machines were built on this plan, and the six-wheeled "C" engine 
was abandoned, except in the case of one built for the Phila- 
delphia, Germantown and Norristown Railroad Company, in 
1846, and this was afterward rebuilt into a six-wheels-connected 
machine. Three methods of carrying out the general design 
were, however, subsequently followed. At first the half-crank 
was used; then horizontal cylinders inclosed in the chimney 
seat and working a full-crank axle, which form of construction 
had been practiced at the Lowell Works ; and eventually outside 
cylinders with outside connections. 

Meanwhile, the flexible truck machine maintained its popu- 
larity for heavy freight service. All the engines thus far built on 
this plan had been six- wheeled, some with the rear driving axle 
back of the firebox, and others with it in front. The next step, 
following logically after the adoption of the eight- wheeled "C" 
engine, was to increase the size of the freight machine, and dis- 



tribute the weight on eight wheels all connected, the two rear 
pairs being rigid in the frame, and the two front pairs combined 
into the flexible-beam truck. This was first done in 1846, when 
seventeen engines on this plan were constructed on one order for 
the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company. Fifteen of 
these were of twenty tons weight, with cylinders fifteen and one- 
half by twenty inches, and wheels forty-six inches in diameter; and 
two of twenty-five tons weight, with cylinders seventeen and one- 
quarter by eighteen inches, and drivers forty-two inches in diam- 


eter. These engines were the first on which Mr. Baldwin placed 
sand boxes, and they were also the first built by him with roofs. 
On all previous engines the footboard had only been inclosed by a 
railing. On these engines for the Reading Railroad four iron 
posts were carried up, and a wooden roof supported by them. 
The engine men added curtains at the sides and front, and Mr. 
Baldwin on subsequent engines added sides, with sash and glass. 
The cab proper, however, was of New England origin, where 
the severity of the climate demanded it, and where it had been 
used previous to this period. 

Forty-two engines were completed in 1846, and thirty-nine 
in 1847. The only novelty to be noted among them was the 
engine "M. G. Bright," built for operating the inclined plane on 
the Madison and Indianapolis Railroad. The rise of this incline 
was one in seventeen, from the bank of the Ohio River at Madison. 
The engine had eight wheels, forty-two inches in diameter, con- 
nected, and worked in the usual manner by outside inclined 


cylinders, fifteen and one-half inches diameter by twenty inches 
stroke. A second pair of cylinders, seventeen inches in diameter 
with eighteen inches stroke of piston was placed vertically over 
the boiler, midway between the furnace and smoke arch. The 
connecting rods, worked by these cylinders, connected with 
cranks on a shaft under the boiler. This shaft carried a single 
cog-wheel at its center, and this cog-wheel engaged with another 
of about twice its diameter on a second shaft adjacent to it and 
in the same plane. The cog-wheel on this latter shaft worked 
in a rack-rail placed in the center of the track. The shaft 
itself had its bearings in the lower ends of two vertical rods, one 
on each side of the boiler, and these rods were united over the 
boiler by a horizontal bar, which was connected by means of a 

bent lever and con- 
necting rod to the 
piston worked by a 
small horizontal cylin- 
der placed on top of 
the boiler. By means 
of this cylinder, the 
yoke carrying the 
shaft and cog-wheel 

BALDWIN ENGINE FOR RACK RAIL, 1847 COuld be depressed 

and held down so as 

to engage the cogs with the rack-rail, or raised out of the way 
when only the ordinary drivers were required. This device was 
designed by Mr. Andrew Cathcart, Master Mechanic of the 
Madison and Indianapolis Railroad. A similar machine, the 
"John Brough," for the same plane, was built by Mr. Baldwin 
in 1850. The incline was worked with a rack-rail and these 
engines until it was finally abandoned and a line with easier 
gradients substituted. 

The use of iron tubes in freight engines grew in favor, and 
in October, 1847, Mr. Baldwin noted that he was fitting his flues 
with copper ends, "for riveting to the boiler." 

The subject of burning coal continued to engage much atten- 
tion, but the use of anthracite had not as yet been generally 
successful. In October, 1847, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 


Company advertised for proposals for four engines to burn 
Cumberland coal, and the order was taken and partially filled by 
Mr. Baldwin with three eight-wheels-connected machines. These 
engines had a heater on top of the boiler for heating the feed 
water, and a grate with a rocking bar in the center, having fingers 
on each side which interlocked with projections on fixed bars, one 
in front and one behind. The rocking bar was operated from the 
footboard. This appears to have been the first instance of the 
use of a rocking grate in the practice of these Works. 

The year 1848 showed a falling off in business, and only 
twenty engines were turned out. In the following year, however, 
there was a rapid recovery, and the production of the Works 
increased to thirty, followed by thirty-seven in 1850, and fifty in 
1851. These engines, with a few exceptions, were confined to 
three patterns: the eight-wheeled four-coupled engine, from 
twelve to nineteen tons in weight, for passengers and freight, and 
the six and eight-wheels-connected engines, for freight exclusively, 
the six-wheeled machine weighing from twelve to seventeen tons, 
and the eight-wheeled from eighteen to twenty-seven tons. The 
drivers of these six- and eight-wheels-connected machines were 
made generally forty-two, with occasional variations up to forty- 
eight inches in diameter. 

The exceptions referred to above were the fast passenger 
engines built by Mr. Baldwin during this period. Early in 1848, 
the Vermont Central Railroad was approaching completion, 
and Governor Paine, the President of the Company, conceived 
the idea that the passenger service on the road required loco- 
motives capable of running at very high velocities. Henry 
R. Campbell, Esq., was a contractor in building the line, and 
was authorized by Governor Paine to come to Philadelphia 
and offer Mr. Baldwin ten thousand dollars for a locomotive 
which could run with a passenger train at a speed of sixty 
miles per hour. Mr. Baldwin at once undertook to meet these 
conditions. The work was begun early in 1848, and in March 
of that year Mr. Baldwin filed a caveat for his design. The 
engine was completed in 1849, and was named the "Governor 
Paine." It had one pair of driving wheels, six and one-half feet 
in diameter, placed back of the firebox. Another pair of wheels, 



but smaller and unconnected, was placed directly in front of 
the firebox, and a four-wheeled truck carried the front of the 
engine. The cylinders were seventeen and one-quarter inches 
diameter and twenty inches stroke, and were placed horizontally 
between the frames and the boiler at about the middle of the 
waist. The connecting rods took hold of "half-cranks" inside 
of the driving wheels. The object of placing the cylinders at the 
middle of the boiler was to lessen or obviate the lateral motion 
of the engine, produced when the cylinders were attached to the 
smoke arch. The bearings on the two rear axles were so con- 
trived that by means of a lever, a part of the weight of the 
engine usually carried on the wheels in front of the firebox could 
be transferred to the driving axle. The "Governor Paine" was 


used for several years on the Vermont Central Railroad, and 
then rebuilt into a four-coupled machine. During its career, it 
was stated by the officers of the road that it had run a mile in 
forty-three seconds. Three engines on the same plan, but with 
cylinders fourteen by twenty inches, and six-feet driving wheels, 
the "MifBin," "Blair" and "Indiana," were also built for the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company in 1849. They weighed each 
about forty-seven thousand pounds, distributed as follows: 
Eighteen thousand on the drivers, fourteen thousand on the pair 
of wheels in front of the firebox, and fifteen thousand on the 
truck. By applying the lever, the weight on the drivers could be 
increased to about twenty-four thousand pounds, the weight 
on the wheels in front of the firebox being correspondingly 


reduced. A speed of four miles in three minutes is recorded for 
them, and upon one occasion President Taylor was taken in a 
special train over the road by one of these machines at a speed of 
sixty miles an hour. One other engine of this pattern, the "Sus- 
quehanna," was built for the Hudson River Railroad Company 
in 1850. Its cylinders were fifteen inches diameter by twenty 
inches stroke, and drivers six feet in diameter. All these engines, 
however, were short-lived, and died of insufficient adhesion. 

Eight engines, with four drivers connected and half-crank 
axles, were built for the New York and Erie Railroad Company 
in 1849, with seventeen by twenty-inch cylinders; one-half of the 
number with six-feet and the rest with five-feet drivers. These 
machines were among the last on which the half-crank axle was 
used. Thereafter, outside-connected engines were constructed 
almost exclusively. 

In May, 1848, Mr. Baldwin filed a caveat for a four-cylinder 
locomotive, but never carried the design into execution. The 
first instance of the use of steel axles in the practice of the 
establishment occurred during the same year a set being placed 
as an experiment under an engine constructed for the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Company. In 1850, the old form of dome boiler, 
which had characterized the Baldwin engine since 1834, was 
abandoned, and the wagon-top form substituted. 

The business in 1851 had reached the full capacity of the 
shop, and the next year marked the completion of about an equal 
number of engines (forty-nine). Contracts for work extended 
a year ahead, and to meet the demand, the facilities in the 
various departments were increased, and resulted in the con- 
struction of sixty engines in 1853, and sixty-two in 1854. 

At the beginning of the latter year, Mr. Matthew Baird, who 
had been connected with the Works since 1836, as one of its fore- 
men, entered into partnership with Mr. Baldwin, and the style of 
the firm was made M. W. Baldwin & Co. 

The only novelty in the general plan of engines during this 
period was the addition of a ten-wheeled engine to the patterns 
of the establishment. The success of Mr. Baldwin's engines with 
all six or eight wheels connected, and the two front pairs com- 
bined by the parallel beams into a flexible truck, had been so 


marked that it was natural that he should oppose any other 
plan for freight service. The ten-wheeled engine, with six 
drivers connected, had, however, now become a competitor. 
This plan of engine was first patented by Septimus Norris, of 
Philadelphia, in 1846, and the original design was apparently to 
produce an engine which should have equal tractive power with 
the Baldwin six-wheels-connected machine. This the Norris 
patent sought to accomplish by proposing an engine with six 
drivers connected, and so disposed as to carry substantially the 
whole weight, the forward drivers being in advance of the center 
of gravity of the engine, and the truck only serving as a guide, 
the front of the engine being connected with it by a pivot pin, 
but without a bearing on the center plate. Mr. Norris's first 
engine on this plan was tried in April, 1847, and was found not 
to pass curves as readily as was expected. As the truck carried 
little or no weight, it would not keep the track. The New 
York and Erie Railroad Company, of which John Brandt was 
then Master Mechanic, shortly afterward adopted the ten-wheeled 
engine, modified in plan so as to carry a part of the weight on 
the truck. Mr. Baldwin filled an order for this company, in 
1850, of four eight- wheels-connected engines, and in making the 
contract he agreed to substitute a truck for the front pair of 
wheels if desired after trial. This, however, he was not called 
upon to do. 

In February, 1852, Mr. J. Edgar Thomson, President of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, invited proposals for a number 
of freight locomotives of fifty-six thousand pounds weight each. 
They were to be adapted to burn bituminous coal, and to have 
six wheels connected and a truck in front, which might be either 
of two or four wheels. Mr. Baldwin secured the contract, and 
built twelve engines of the prescribed dimensions, viz.: cylinders 
eighteen by twenty-two; drivers forty-four inches diameter, with 
chilled tires. Several of these engines were constructed with a 
single pair of truck wheels in front of the drivers, but back of 
the cylinders. It was found, however, after the engines were put 
in service, that the two truck wheels carried eighteen or nineteen 
thousand pounds, and this was objected to by the company as 
too great a weight to be carried on a single pair of wheels. On 


the rest of the engines of the order, therefore, a four-wheeled 
truck in front was employed. 

The ten-wheeled engine thereafter assumed a place in the 
Baldwin classification, but it was not until after 1860 that this 
type wholly superseded Mr. Baldwin's old plan of freight engine 
on six or eight wheels, all connected. 

In 1855-56, two locomotives of twenty-seven tons weight, 
with nineteen by twenty-two inch cylinders and forty-eight inch 
drivers, were built for the Portage Railroad, and three for the 
Pennsylvania Railroad. In 1855, '56 and '57, fourteen of the 
same dimensions were built for the Cleveland and Pittsburg Rail- 
road; four for the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad; 
and one for the Marietta and Cincinnati Railroad. In 1858 and 
'59, one was constructed for the South Carolina Railroad, of the 
same size, and six lighter ten-wheelers, with cylinders fifteen and 
one-half by twenty-two inches, and four-feet drivers, and two 
with cylinders sixteen by twenty-two inches, and four-feet drivers 
were sent out to railroads in Cuba. 

On three locomotives the "Clinton," "Athens," and 
"Sparta" completed for the Central Railroad of Georgia in 
July, 1852, the driving boxes were made with a slot or cavity in 
the line of the vertical bearing on the journal. The object was to 
produce a more uniform distribution of the wear over the entire 
surface of the bearing. This was the first instance in which this 
device, which has since come into general use, was employed in 
the Works, and the boxes were so made by direction of Mr. 
Charles Whiting, then Master Mechanic of the Central Railroad 
of Georgia. He subsequently informed Mr. Baldwin that this 
method of fitting up driving boxes had been in use on the road 
for several years previous to his connection with the company. 
As this device was subsequently made the subject of a patent by 
Mr. David Matthew, these facts may not be without interest. 

In 1853, Mr. Charles Ellet, Chief Engineer of the Virginia 
Central Railroad, laid a temporary track across the Blue Ridge, 
at Rock Fish Gap, for use during the construction of a tunnel 
through the mountain. This track was twelve thousand five 
hundred feet in length on the eastern slope, ascending in that 
distance six hundred and ten feet, or at the average rate of one 


in twenty and one-half feet. The maximum grade was calculated 
for two hundred and ninety-six feet per mile, and prevailed for 
half a mile. It was found, however, in fact, that the grade in 
places exceeded three hundred feet per mile. The shortest radius 
of curvature was two hundred and thirty-eight feet. On the 
western slope, which was ten thousand six hundred and fifty 
feet in length, the maximum grade was two hundred and eighty 
feet per mile, and the ruling radius of curvature three hundred 
feet. This track was worked by two of the Baldwin six-wheels- 
connected flexible-beam truck locomotives constructed in 1853- 
54. From a description of this track, and the mode of working 
it, published by Mr. Ellet, in 1856, the following is extracted: 

"The locomotives mainly relied on for this severe duty were designed 
and constructed by the firm of M. W. Baldwin & Company, of Philadelphia. 
The slight modifications introduced at the instance of the writer, to adapt 
them better to the particular service to be performed in crossing the Blue 
Ridge, did not touch the working proportions or principle of the engines, 
the merits of which are due to the patentee, M. W. Baldwin, Esq. 

"These engines are mounted on six wheels, all of which are drivers, 
and coupled, and forty-two inches diameter. The wheels are set very close, 
so that the distance between the extreme points of contact of the wheels 
and the rail, of the front and rear drivers, is nine feet four inches. This 
closeness of the wheels, of course, greatly reduces the difficulty of turning 
the short curves of the road. The diameter of the cylinders is sixteen and 
a half inches, and the length of the stroke twenty inches. To increase the 
adhesion, and at the same time avoid the resistance of a tender, the engine 
carries its tank upon the boiler, and the footboard is lengthened out and pro- 
vided with suspended side boxes, where a supply of fuel may be stored. 
By this means the weight of wood and water, instead of abstracting from the 
effective power of the engine, contributes to its adhesion and consequent 
ability to climb the mountain. The total weight of these engines is fifty-five 
thousand pounds, or twenty-seven and a half tons, when the boiler and tank 
are supplied with water, and fuel enough for a trip of eight miles is on board. 
The capacity of the tank is sufficient to hold one hundred cubic feet of water, 
and it has storage room on top for one hundred cubic feet of wood, in addition 
to what may be carried in the side boxes and on the footboard. 

"To enable the engines to better adapt themselves to the flexures of 
the road, the front and middle pairs of drivers are held in position by wrought- 
iron beams, having cylindrical boxes in each end for the journal bearings, 
which beams vibrate on spherical pins fixed in the frame of the engine on each 
side, and resting on the centers of the beams. The object of this arrangement 


is to form a truck, somewhat flexible, which enables the drivers more readily 
to traverse the curves of the road. 

"The writer has never permitted the power of the engines on this moun- 
tain road to be fully tested. The object has been to work the line regularly, 
economically, and above all, safely; and these conditions are incompatible 
with experimental loads subjecting the machinery to severe strains. The 
regular daily service of each of the engines is to make four trips, of eight miles, 
over the mountain, drawing one eight-wheel baggage car, together with two 
eight-wheel passenger cars, in each direction. 

"In conveying freight, the regular train on the mountain is three of 
the eight-wheel house cars, fully loaded, or four of them when empty or 
partly loaded. 

"These three cars when full, weigh with their loads, from forty to 
orty-three tons. Sometimes, though rarely, when the business has been 
unusually heavy, the loads have exceeded fifty tons. 

"With such trains the engines are stopped on the track, ascending or 
descending, and are started again, on the steepest grades, at the discretion 
of the engineer. 

"Water for the supply of the engines has been found difficult to obtain 
on the mountain; and since the road was constructed a tank has been estab- 
lished on the eastern slope, where the ascending engines stop daily on a grade 
of two hundred and eighty feet per mile, and are there held by the brakes while 
the tank is being filled, and started again at the signal and without any 

"The ordinary speed of the engines, when loaded, is seven and a half miles 
an hour on the ascending grades, and from five and a half to six miles an hour 
on the descent. 

"When the road was first opened, it speedily appeared that the differ- 
ence of forty-three feet on the western side, and fifty-eight on the eastern side, 
between the grades on curves of three hundred feet radius and those on straight 
lines, was not sufficient to compensate for the increased friction due to such 
curvature. The velocity, with a constant supply of steam, was promptly 
retarded on passing from a straight line to a curve, and promptly accelerated 
again on passing from the curve to the straight line. But, after a little 
experience in the working of the road, it was found advisable to supply a 
small amount of grease to the flange of the engine by means of a sponge, 
saturated with oil, which, when needed, is kept in contact with the wheel 
by a spring. Since the use of the oil was introduced, the difficulty of turning 
the curves has been so far diminished that it is no longer possible to determine 
whether grades of two hundred and thirty-seven and six-tenths feet per mile 
on curves of three hundred feet radius, or grades of two hundred and ninety- 
six feet per mile on straight lines, are traversed most rapidly by the engine. 

"When the track is in good condition, the brakes of only two of the 
cars possess sufficient power to control and regulate the movement of the 
train that is to say, they will hold back the two cars and the engine. When 


there are three or more cars in the train, the brakes on the cars, of course, 
command the train so much the more easily. 

"But the safety of the train is not dependent on the brakes of the car. 
There is also a valve or air cock in the steam chest, under the control of 
the engineer. This air cock forms an independent brake, exclusively at the 
command of the engineer, and which can always be applied when the engine 
itself is in working order. The action of this power may be made ever so 
gradual, either slightly relieving the duty of the brakes on the cars, or bringing 
into play the entire power of the engine. The train is thus held in complete 

The Mountain Top Track, it may be added, was worked 
successfully for several years by the engines described in the 
above extract, until it was abandoned on the completion of the 
tunnel. The exceptionally steep grades and short curves which 
characterized the line afforded a complete and satisfactory test 
of the adaptation of these machines to such peculiar service. 

But the period now under consideration was marked by 
another and a most important step in the progress of American 
locomotive practice. We refer to the introduction of the link 
motion. Although this device was first employed by William 
T. James, of New York, in 1832, and eleven years later by the 
Stephensons, in England, and was by them applied thence- 
forward on their engines, it was not until 1849 that it was adopted 
in this country. In that year Mr. Thomas Rogers, of the Rogers 
Locomotive and Machine Company, introduced it in his practice. 
Other builders, however, strenuously resisted the innovation, and 
none more so than Mr. Baldwin. The theoretical objections 
which confessedly apply to the device, but which practically have 
been proved to be unimportant, were urged from the first by Mr. 
Baldwin as arguments against its use. The strong claim of the 
advocates of the link motion, that it gave a means of cutting off 
steam at any point of the stroke, could not be gainsaid, and this 
was admitted to be a<consideration of the first importance. This 
very circumstance undoubtedly turned Mr. Baldwin's attention 
to the subject of methods for cutting off steam, and one of the 
first results was his "Variable Cut-off," patented April 27, 1852. 
This device consisted of two valves, the upper sliding upon the 
lower, and worked by an eccentric and rock shaft in the usual 
manner. The lower valve fitted steam-tight to the sides of the 


steam chest and the under surface of the upper valve. When 
the piston reached each end of its stroke, the full pressure of 
steam from the boiler was admitted around the upper valve, and 
transferred the lower valve instantaneously from one end of the 
steam chest to the other. The openings through the two valves 
were so arranged that steam was admitted to the cylinder only 
for a part of the stroke. The effect was, therefore, to cut off 
steam at a given point, and to open the induction and exhaust 
ports substantially at the same instant and to their full extent. 
The exhaust port, in addition, remained fully opened while the 
induction port was gradually closing, and after it had entirely 
closed. Although this device was never put in use, it may be 
noted in passing that it contained substantially the principle of 
the steam pump, as since patented and constructed. 

Early in 1853 Mr. Baldwin abandoned the half-stroke cut-off 
previously described, and which he had been using since 1845, 
and adopted the variable cut-off, which was already employed by 
other builders. One of his letters, written in January, 1853, 
states his position as follows: 

"I shall put on an improvement in the shape of a variable cut-off, which 
can be operated by the engineer while the machine is running, and which will 
cut off anywhere from six to twelve inches, according to the load and amount 
of steam wanted, and this without the link motion, which I could never be 
entirely satisfied with. I still have the independent cut-off, and the additional 
machinery to make it variable will be simple and not liable to be deranged." 

This form of cut-off was a separate valve, sliding on a parti- 
tion plate between it and the main steam valve, and worked by an 
independent eccentric and rock shaft. The upper arm of the 
rock shaft was curved so as to form a radius arm, on which a 
sliding block, forming the termination of the upper valve rod, 
could be adjusted and held at varying distances from the axis, 
thus producing a variable travel of the upper valve. This device 
did not give an absolutely perfect cut-off, as it was not operative 
in backward gear, but when running forward it would cut off 
with great accuracy at any point of the stroke, was quick in its 
movement, and economical in the consumption of fuel. 

After a short experience with this arrangement of the cut-off, 
the partition plate was omitted, and the upper valve was made to 


slide directly on the lower. This was eventually found objec- 
tionable, however, as the lower valve would soon cut a hollow in 
the valve face. Several unsuccessful attempts were made to 
remedy this defect by making the lower valve of brass, with long 
bearings, and making the valve face of the cylinder of hardened 
steel; finally, however, the plan of one valve on the other was 
abandoned, and recourse was again had to an interposed par- 
tition plate, as in the original half-stroke cut-off. 


Mr. Baldwin did not adopt this form of cut-off without some 
modification of his own, and the modification in this instance con- 
sisted of a peculiar device, patented September 13, 1853, for rais- 
ing and lowering the block on the radius arm. A quadrant was 
placed so that its circumference bore nearly against a curved arm 
projecting down from the sliding block, and which curved in 
the reverse direction from the quadrant. Two steel straps, side 
by side, were interposed between the quadrant and this curved 
arm. One of the straps was connected to the lower end of the 
quadrant and the upper end of the curved arm; the other, to the 
upper end of the quadrant and the lower end of the curved arm. 
The effect was the same as if the quadrant and arm geared into 
each other in any position by teeth, and theoretically the block 
was kept steady in whatever position placed on the radius arm of 
the rock shaft. This was the object sought to be accomplished, 
and was stated in the specification of the patent as follows: 

"The principle of varying the cut-off by means of a vibrating arm and 
sliding pivot block has long been known, but the contrivances for changing 
the position of the block upon the arm have been very defective. The radius 
of motion of the link by which the sliding block is changed on the arm, and 
the radius of motion of that part of the vibrating arm on which the block is 
placed, have, in this kind of valve gear, as heretofore constructed, been 
different, which produced a continual rubbing of the sliding block upon the 
arm while the arm is vibrating; and as the block, for the greater part of the 


time, occupies one position on the arm, and only has to be moved toward either 
extremity occasionally, that part of the arm on which the block is most used 
soon becomes so worn that the block is loose, and jars." 

This method of varying the cut-off was first applied on the 
engine "Belle," delivered to the Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
pany, December 6, 1854, and thereafter was for some time em- 
ployed by Mr. Baldwin. It was found, however, in practice, 
that the steel straps would stretch sufficiently to allow them to 
buckle and break, and hence they were soon abandoned, and 
chains substituted between the quadrant and curved arm of the 
sliding block. These chains in turn proved little better, as they 
lengthened, allowing lost motion, or broke altogether, so that 
eventually the quadrant was wholly abandoned, and recourse 
was finally had to the lever and link for raising and lowering the 
sliding block. As thus arranged, the cut-off was substantially 
what was known as the "Cuyahoga Cut-off," as introduced by 
Mr. Ethan Rogers, of the Cuyahoga Works, Cleveland, Ohio, 
except that Mr. Baldwin used a partition plate between the upper 
and the lower valve. 

But while Mr. Baldwin in common with many other builders, 
was thus resolutely opposing the link motion, it was nevertheless 
rapidly gaining favor with railroad managers. Engineers and 
master mechanics were everywhere learning to admire its sim- 
plicity, and were manifesting an enthusiastic preference for en- 
gines so constructed. At length, therefore, he was forced to suc- 
cumb; and the link was applied to the "Pennsylvania," one of 
two engines completed for the Central Railroad of Georgia, in 
February, 1854. The other engine of the order, the "New 
Hampshire," had the variable cut-off, and Mr. Baldwin, while 
yielding to the demand in the former engine, was undoubtedly 
sanguine that the working of the latter would demonstrate the 
inferiority of the new device. In this, however, he was dis- 
appointed, for in the following year the same company ordered 
three more engines, on which they specified the link motion. In 
1856 seventeen engines for nine different companies had this form 
of valve gear, and its use was thus incorporated in his practice. 
It was not, however, until 1857 that he was induced to adopt it 


February 14, 1854, Mr. Baldwin and Mr. David Clark, 
Master Mechanic of the Mine Hill Railroad, took out conjointly 
a patent for a feed-water heater, placed at the base of a locomo- 
tive chimney, and consisting of one large vertical flue, surrounded 
by a number of smaller ones. The exhaust steam was discharged 
from the nozzles through the large central flue, creating a draft 
of the products of combustion through the smaller surrounding 
flues. The pumps forced the feed water into the chamber around 
these flues, whence it passed to the boiler by a pipe from the back 
of the stack. This heater was applied on several engines for the 
Mine Hill Railroad, and on a few other roads; but its use was 
exceptional, and lasted only for a year or two. 

In December of the same year, Mr. Baldwin filed a caveat 
for a variable exhaust, operated automatically by the pressure of 
steam, so as to close when the pressure was lowest in the boiler, 
and open with the increase of pressure. The device was never 
put in service. 

The use of coal, both bituminous and anthracite, as a fuel 
for locomotives, had by this time become a practical success. 
The economical combustion of bituminous coal, however, engaged 
considerable attention. It was felt that much remained to be 
accomplished in consuming the smoke and deriving the maxi- 
mum of useful effect from the fuel. Mr. Baird, who was now 
associated with Mr. Baldwin in the management of the business, 
made this matter a subject of careful study and investigation. 
An experiment was conducted under his direction, by placing a 
sheet iron deflector in the firebox of an engine on the German- 
town and Norristown Railroad. The success of the trial was 
such as to show conclusively that a more complete combustion 
resulted. As, however, a deflector formed by a single plate of 
iron would soon be destroyed by the action of the fire, Mr. Baird 
proposed to use a water-leg projecting upward and backward 
from the front of the firebox under the flues. Drawings and a 
model of the device were prepared, with a view of patenting it, 
but subsequently the intention was abandoned, Mr. Baird con- 
cluding that a firebrick arch as a deflector to accomplish the same 
object was preferable. This was accordingly tried on two loco- 
motives built for the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in 1854, 


and was found so valuable an appliance that its use was at once 
established, and it was put on a number of engines built for rail- 
roads in Cuba and elsewhere. For several years the firebricks 
were supported on side plugs; but in 1858, in the "Media," built 
for the West Chester and Philadelphia Railroad Company, water- 
pipes extending from the crown obliquely downward and curving 
to the sides of the firebox at the bottom, were successfully used 
for the purpose. 

The adoption of the link motion may be regarded as the 
dividing line between the present and the early and transitional 
stage of locomotive practice. Changes since that event have been 
principally in matters of detail, but it is the gradual perfection 
of these details which has made the locomotive the symmetrical, 
efficient, and wonderfully complete piece of mechanism it is today. 

The production of the establishment during the six years 
from 1855 to 1860, inclusive, was as follows: forty-seven engines 
in 1855; fifty-nine in 1856; sixty-six in 1857; thirty-three in 1858; 
seventy in 1859; and eighty- three in 1860. The greater number 
of these were of the ordinary type: four drivers coupled, and a 
four-wheeled truck, and varying in weight from fifteen-ton 
engines, with cylinders twelve by twenty-two inches, to twenty- 
seven-ton engines, with cylinders sixteen by twenty-four inches. 
A few ten-wheeled engines were built, as has been previously 
noted, and the remainder were the Baldwin flexible truck six- and 
eight-wheels-connected engines. The demand for these, however, 
was now rapidly falling off, the ten-wheeled and heavy "C" 
engines taking their place, and by 1859 they ceased to be built, 
save in exceptional cases, as for some foreign roads, from which 
orders for this pattern were still occasionally received. 

A few novelties characterizing the engines of this period 
may be mentioned. Several built in 1855 had cross-flues placed 
in the firebox, under the crown, in order to increase the heating 
surface. This feature, however, was found impracticable and 
was soon abandoned. The intense heat to which the flues 
were exposed converted the water contained in them into highly 
superheated steam, which would force its way out through the 
water around the firebox with violent ebullitions. Four engines, 
the "Tiger," "Leopard," "Hornet" and "Wasp," were built for 


the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, in 1856-57, with straight 
boilers and two domes. The "Delano" grate, by means of 
which the coal was forced into the firebox from below, was 
applied on four ten-wheeled engines for the Cleveland and 
Pittsburg Railroad in 1857. In 1859 several engines were built 
with the form of boiler introduced on the Cumberland Valley 
Railroad, in 1851, by Mr. A. F. Smith, and which consisted of a 
combustion chamber in the waist of the boiler next the firebox. 
This form of boiler was for some years thereafter largely used 
in engines for soft coal. It was at first constructed with the 
"water-leg" which was a vertical water space, connecting the 
top and bottom sheets of the combustion chamber, but even- 
tually this feature was omitted, and an unobstructed combustion 
chamber employed. Several engines were built for the Philadel- 
phia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad Company, in 1859 and 
thereafter, with the "Dimpfel" boiler, in which the tubes con- 
tain water, and starting downward from the crown sheet, are 
curved to the horizontal, and terminate in a narrow water space 
next to the smokebox. The whole waist of the boiler, therefore* 
forms a combustion chamber, and the heat and gases, after 
passing for their whole length along and around the tubes, 
emerge into the lower part of the smokebox. 

In 1860 an engine was built for the Mine Hill Railroad, with 
a boiler of a peculiar form. The top sheets sloped upward from 
both ends toward the center, thus making a raised part or hump 
in the center. The engine was designed to work on heavy grades, 
and the object sought by Mr. Wilder, the superintendent of the 
Mine Hill Railroad, was to have the water always at the same 
height in the space from which steam was drawn, whether going 
up or down grade. 

All these experiments are indicative of the interest then pre- 
vailing upon the subject of coal burning. The result of experi- 
ence and study had meantime satisfied Mr. Baldwin that to 
burn soft coal successfully required no peculiar devices ; that the 
ordinary form of boiler with plain firebox was right, with perhaps 
the addition of a firebrick deflector; and that the secret of the 
economical and successful use of coal was in the mode of firing, 
rather than in a different form of furnace. 


The year 1861 witnessed a marked falling off in the produc- 
tion. The breaking out of the Civil War at first unsettled busi- 
ness, and by many it was thought that railroad traffic would 
be so largely reduced that the demand for locomotives must cease 
altogether. A large number of hands were discharged from the 
Works, and only forty locomotives were turned out during the 
year. It was even seriously contemplated to turn the resources 
of the establishment to the manufacture of shot and shell, and 
other munitions of war, the belief being entertained that the 
building of locomotives would have to be altogether suspended. 
So far was this from being the case, however, that after the first 
excitement had subsided, it was found that the demand for trans- 
portation by the General Government, and by the branches of 
trade and production stimulated by the war, was likely to tax the 
carrying capacity of the principal Northern railroads to the fullest 
extent. The Government itself became a large purchaser of loco- 
motives, and it is noticeable, as indicating the increase of travel 
and freight transportation, that heavier machines than had ever 
before been built became the rule. Seventy-five engines were 
sent from the Works in 1862; ninety-six in 1863; one hundred 
and thirty in 1864; and one hundred and fifteen in 1865. During 
two years of this period, from May, 1862, to June, 1864, thirty- 
three engines were built for the United States Military Railroads. 

The demand from the various coal-carrying roads in Penn- 
sylvania and vicinity was particularly active, and large numbers 
of ten-wheeled engines, and of the heaviest eight-wheeled four- 
coupled engines, were built. Of the latter class, the majority 
had fifteen- and sixteen-inch cylinders ; and of the former, seven- 
teen- and eighteen-inch cylinders. 

The introduction of several important features in construc- 
tion marks this period. Early in 1861 four eighteen-inch cyl- 
inder freight locomotives, with six coupled wheels, fifty-two 
inches in diameter, and a Bissell pony truck with radius bar in 
front, were sent to the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Com- 
pany. This was the first instance of the use of the Bissell truck in 
the Baldwin Works. These engines, however, were not of the 
regular Mogul type, as they were only modifications of the ten- 
wheeler, the drivers retaining the same position well back, and 



a pair of pony wheels on the Bissell plan taking the place of 
the ordinary four-wheeled truck. Other engines of the same pat- 
tern, but with eighteen and one-half inch cylinders, were built 
in 1862-63, for the same company, and for the Dom Pedro II. 
Railway of Brazil. 

The introduction of steel in locomotive construction was a 
distinguishing feature of the period. Steel tires were first used 
in the Works in 1862, on some engines for the Dom Pedro II. 
Railway of South America. Their general adoption on American 
Railroads followed slowly. No tires of this material were then 
made in this country, and it was objected to their use that, as it 
took from sixty to ninety days to import them, an engine, in 
case of a breakage of one of its tires, might be laid up useless 
for several months. To obviate this objection, M. W. Baldwin 
& Co. imported five hundred steel tires, most of which were kept 
in stock, from which to fill orders. 
The steel tires as first used in 1862, on 
the locomotives for the Dom Pedro 
Segundo Railway, were made with a 
shoulder at one edge of the internal 
periphery, and were shrunk on the 
wheel centers. The accompanying 
sketch shows a section of the tire as 
then used. 

Steel fireboxes were first built for 
some engines for the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company, in 1861. English 
steel of a high temper was used, and 
at the first attempt the fireboxes 
cracked in fitting them in the boilers, 
and it became necessary to take them 
out and substitute copper. American homogeneous cast steel 
was then tried on engines 231 and 232, completed for the 
Pennsylvania Railroad in January, 1862, and it was found to 
work successfully. The fireboxes of nearly all engines thereafter 
built for that road were of this material, and in 1866 its use for 
the purpose became general. It may be added that while all steel 
sheets for fireboxes or boilers are required to be thoroughly 



annealed before delivery, those which are flanged or worked in 
the process of boiler construction are a second time annealed 
before riveting. 

Another feature of construction gradually adopted was the 
placing of the cylinders horizontally. This was first done in the 
case of an outside-connected engine, the "Ocmulgee," which 
was sent to the Southwestern Railroad Company, of Georgia, in 
January, 1858. This engine had a square smokebox, and the 
cylinders were bolted horizontally to its sides. The plan of 
casting the cylinder and half-saddle in one piece and fitting 
it to the round smokebox was introduced by Mr. Baldwin, 
and grew naturally out of his original method of construction. 
Mr. Baldwin was the first American builder to use an outside 
cylinder, and he made it for his early engines with a circular 
flange cast to it, by which it could be bolted to the boiler. The 
cylinders were gradually brought lower, and at a less angle, and 
the flanges prolonged and enlarged. In 1852, three six-wheels- 
connected engines, for the Mine Hill Railroad Company, were 
built with the cylinder flanges brought around under the smoke- 
box until they nearly met, the space between them being filled 
with a sparkbox. This was practically equivalent to making 
the cylinder and half-saddle in one casting. Subsequently, on 
other engines on which the sparkbox was not used, the half- 
saddles were cast so as almost to meet under the smokebox, and, 
after the cylinders were adjusted in position, wedges were fitted 
in the interstices and the saddles bolted together. It was finally 
discovered that the faces of the two half-saddles might be planed 
and finished so that they could be bolted together and bring 
the cylinders accurately in position, thus avoiding the trouble- 
some and tedious job of adjusting them by chipping and fitting 
to the boiler and frames. With this method of construction, 
the cylinders were placed at a less and less angle, until at length 
the truck wheels were spread sufficiently, on all new or modified 
classes of locomotives in the Baldwin list, to admit of the cylin- 
ders being hung horizontally, as is the present almost universal 
American practice. By the year 1865, horizontal cylinders were 
made in all cases where the patterns would allow it. The ad- 
vantages of this arrangement are manifestly in the interest of 


simplicity and economy, as the cylinders are thus rights or lefts, 
indiscriminately, and a single pattern answers for either side. 

In July, 1866, the engine "Consolidation" was built for the 
Lehigh Valley Railroad, on the plan and specification furnished 
by Mr. Alexander Mitchell, Master Mechanic of the Mahanoy 
Division of that Railroad. This engine was intended for working 
the Mahanoy plane, which rises at the rate of one hundred and 

thirty-three feet per mile. The 
"Consolidation" had cylinders 
twenty by twenty-four inches, 
four pairs of drivers connected , 
forty-eight inches in diameter, 
and a Bissell pony truck in 
LOCOMOTIVE -CONSOLIDATION" front, equalized with the front 

drivers. The weight of the 

engine, in working order, was ninety thousand pounds, of which all 
but about ten thousand pounds was on the drivers. This engine 
constituted the first of a class to which it gave its name, and 
Consolidation engines have since been constructed for a large 
number of railways, not only in the United States, but also in 
many foreign countries. The heaviest of these locomotives weigh 
over three times as much as the original "Consolidation." 

It has already been noted, that as early as 1839 Mr. Baldwin 
felt the importance of making all like parts of similar engines 
absolutely uniform and interchangeable. It was not attempted 
to accomplish this object, however, by means of a complete 
system of standard gauges, until many years later. In 1861 
a beginning was made of organizing all the departments of 
manufacture upon this basis, and from it grew an elaborate 
and perfected system, embracing all the essential details of 
construction. An independent department of the Works, 
having a separate foreman and an adequate force of skilled work- 
men with special tools adapted to the purpose, is organized as 
the Department of Standard Gauges. A system of standard 
gauges and templets for every description of work to be done is 
made and kept by this department. The original templets are 
kept as "standards," and are never used on the work itself, but 
from them exact duplicates are made, which are issued to the 


foremen of the various departments, and to which all work is 
required to conform. The working gauges are compared with 
the standards at regular intervals, and absolute uniformity is 
thus maintained. The result of this system is interchange- 
ableness of like parts in engines of the same class, insuring to the 
purchaser the minimum cost of repairs, and rendering possible, 
by the application of this method, the large production which 
these Works have accomplished. 

Thus had been developed and perfected the various essential 
details of existing locomotive practice when Mr. Baldwin died, 
September 7, 1866. He had been permitted, in a life of unusual 
activity and energy, to witness the rise and wonderful increase of 
a material interest which had become the distinguishing feature 
of the century. He had done much-, by his own mechanical 
skill and inventive genius, to contribute to the development of 
that interest. His name was as "familiar as household words" 
wherever on the American continent the locomotive had pene- 
trated. An ordinary ambition might well have been satisfied 
with this achievement. But Mr. Baldwin's claim to the remem- 
brance of his fellow-men rests not alone on the results of his 
mechanical labors. A merely technical history, such as this, is 
not the place to do justice to his memory as a man, as a Christian, 
and as a philanthropist; yet the record would be manifestly 
imperfect, and would fail properly to reflect the sentiments of 
his business associates who so long knew him in all relations of 
life, were no reference made to his many virtues and noble traits 
of character. Mr. Baldwin was a man of sterling integrity and 
singular conscientiousness. To do right, absolutely and unre- 
servedly, in all his relations with men, was an instinctive rule of 
his nature. His heroic struggle to meet every dollar of his 
liabilities, principal and interest, after his failure, consequent 
upon the general financial crash in 1837, constitutes a chapter of 
personal self-denial and determined effort which is seldom paral- 
leled in the annals of commercial experience. When most men 
would have felt that an equitable compromise with creditors was 
all that could be demanded in view of the general financial 
embarrassment, Mr. Baldwin insisted upon paying all claims in 
full, and succeeded in doing so only after nearly five years of 


unremitting industry, close economy, and absolute personal sacri- 
fices. As a philanthropist and a sincere and earnest Christian, 
zealous in every good work, his memory is cherished by many 
to whom his contributions to locomotive improvement are com- 
paratively unknown. From the earliest years of his business life 
the practice of systematic benevolence was made a duty and a 
pleasure. His liberality constantly increased with his means. 
Indeed, he would unhesitatingly give his notes, in large sums, for 
charitable purposes, when money was absolutely wanted to carry 
on his business. Apart from the thousands which he expended 
in private charities, and of which, of course, little can be known, 
Philadelphia contains many monuments of his munificence. 
Early taking a deep interest in all Christian effort, his contri- 
butions to missionary enterprise and church extension were on 
the grandest scale, and grew with increasing wealth. Numerous 
church edifices in this city, of the denomination to which he 
belonged, owe their existence largely to his liberality, and two at 
least were projected and built by him entirely at his own cost. 
In his mental character, Mr. Baldwin was a man of remarkable 
firmness of purpose. This trait was strongly shown during his 
mechanical career, in the persistency with which he would work 
at a new improvement or resist an innovation. If he were led 
sometimes to assume an attitude of antagonism to features of 
locomotive construction which after-experience showed to be 
valuable, (and a desire for historical accuracy has required the 
mention, in previous pages, of several instances of this kind) it 
is at least certain that his opposition was based upon a consci- 
entious belief in the mechanical impolicy of the proposed changes. 
After the death of Mr. Baldwin the business was reorganized , 
in 1867, under the title of "The Baldwin Locomotive Works," 
M. Baird & Co., proprietors. Messrs. George Burnham and 
Charles T. Parry, who had been connected with the establish- 
ment from an early period, the former in charge of the finances, 
and the latter as General Superintendent, were associated with 
Mr. Baird in the copartnership. Three years later Messrs. Edward 
H. Williams, William P. Henszey and Edward Longstreth became 
members of the firm. Mr. Williams had been connected with 
railway management on various lines since 1850. Mr. Henszey 


had been Mechanical Engineer, and Mr. Longstreth the General 
Superintendent of the Works for several years previously. 

A class of engines known as Moguls, with three pairs of 
drivers connected, and a swinging pony truck in front equalized 
with the forward drivers, took its rise in the practice of this 
establishment from the "E. 
A. Douglas," built for the 
Thomas Iron Company in 
1867. Mogul locomotives were 
soon extensively employed 
in heavy freight service on 
American railways, and their 
use continued for many years 
after the building of the "Douglas." They have now, how- 
ever, been generally replaced, in main line work, by locomotives 
of more powerful types. Large numbers of Mogul locomotives 
have been built for export, and in plantation and other forms 
of special service, this type is deservedly popular. 

In 1867, on a number of eight-wheeled four-coupled engines 
for the Pennsylvania Railroad, the four-wheeled swing bolster 
truck was first applied, and thereafter a large number of engines 
have been so constructed. The two- wheeled or "pony truck" 
has been built both on the Bissell plan, with double inclined 
slides, and with the ordinary swing bolster, and in both cases 
with the radius bar pivoting from a point about four feet back 
from the center of the truck. In the case of both the two-wheeled 
and the four-wheeled truck, however, the swing bolster is now the 
rule; the four-wheeled truck being made without a radius bar. 
Of the engines above referred to as the first on which the swing 
bolster truck was applied, four were for express passenger serv- 
ice, with drivers sixty-seven inches in diameter, and cylinders 
seventeen by twenty-four inches. One of them, placed on the 
road September 9, 1867, was in constant service until May 14, 
1871, without ever being off its wheels for repairs, making a total 
mileage of one hundred and fifty-three thousand two hundred and 
eighty miles. All of these engines had their driving wheels 
spread eight and one-half feet between centers. 

Steel flues were first used in three ten-wheeled freight engines, 


numbers 211, 338 and 368, completed for the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road in August, 1868. Steel boilers were first made in 1868 for 
locomotives for the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, and the use 
of this material for the barrels of boilers as well as for the fire- 
boxes subsequently became universal in American practice. 

In 1866, the straight boiler with two domes, first used in 
1856, was again introduced; and until about 1880 the practice of 
the establishment included both the wagon-top boiler with single 
dome, and the straight boiler with one or two domes. Since 
1880, the use of two domes has been exceptional, both wagon- 
top and straight boilers being constructed with one dome. 

In 1868, a locomotive of three and one half feet gauge was 
constructed for the Averill Coal and Oil Company, of West 
Virginia. This was the first narrow gauge locomotive in the 
practice of the Works. In 1869, three locomotives of the same 
gauge were constructed for the Uniao Valenciana Railway of 
Brazil and were the first narrow gauge locomotives constructed 
at these Works for general passenger and freight traffic. In the 
following year the Denver and Rio Grande Railway, of Colorado, 
was projected on the three-feet gauge, and the first locomotives 
for the line were designed and built in 1871. Two classes, for 
passenger and freight, respectively, were constructed. The 
former were six-wheeled with four wheels coupled forty inches in 
diameter, and nine by sixteen-inch cylinders. They weighed each, 
loaded, about twenty-five thousand pounds. The latter were 
eight-wheeled, with six wheels coupled, thirty-six inches in diam- 
eter, and eleven by sixteen-inch cylinders. These locomotives 
weighed each, loaded, about thirty-five thousand pounds. Both 
types had a swinging truck with a single pair of wheels in front 
of the cylinders. The six-coupled design was for freight service, 
and was subsequently built in larger sizes. The four-coupled 
type for passenger service was found to be too small and to be 
unsteady on the track, owing to its comparatively short wheel 
base. It was therefore abandoned, and the ordinary American 
pattern, eight-wheeled, four coupled, substituted. Following 
the engines for the Denver and Rio Grande Railway, others for 
other narrow gauge lines were called for, and the manufacture 
of this description of rolling stock soon assumed importance. 


The Consolidation type, as first introduced for the four 
feet eight and one-half inches gauge in 1866, was adapted to the 
three feet gauge in 1873. In 1877, a locomotive on this plan, 
weighing in working order about sixty thousand pounds, with 
cylinders fifteen by twenty inches, was built for working the 
Garland extension of the Denver and Rio Grande Railway, which 
crossed the Rocky Mountains with maximum grades of two hun- 
dred and eleven feet per mile, and minimum curves of thirty 
degrees. The performance of this locomotive, the "Alamosa," is 
given in the following extract from a letter from the then General 

Superintendent of that railway: 

DENVER, COL., August 31, 1877 

"On the 29th inst. I telegraphed you from Veta Pass Sangre de Cristo 
Mountains that engine 'Alamosa' had just hauled from Garland to the 
Summit one baggage car and seven coaches, containing one hundred and 
sixty passengers. Yesterday I received your reply asking for particulars, etc. 

"My estimate of the weight was eighty-five net tons, stretched over a 
distance of three hundred and sixty feet, or including the engine of four hun- 
dred and five feet. 

"The occasion of this sized train was an excursion from Denver to 
Garland and return. The night before, in going over from La Veta, we 
had over two hundred passengers, but it was but 8 p. M., and fearing a 
slippery rail, I put on engine No. 19 as a pusher, although the engineer of 
the 'Alamosa' said he could haul the train, and I believe he could have done so. 
The engine and train took up a few feet more than the half circle at 'Mule Shore, ' 
where the radius is one hundred and ninety-three feet. The engine worked 
splendidly, and moved up the two hundred and eleven feet grades and 
around the thirty degree curves seemingly with as much ease as our passenger 
engines on seventy-five feet grades with three coaches and baggage cars. 

"The 'Alamosa' hauls regularly eight loaded cars and caboose, about 
one hundred net tons; length of train about two hundred and thirty feet. 

"The distance from Garland to Veta Pass is fourteen and one-quarter 
miles, and the time is one hour and twenty minutes. 

"Respectfully yours, 
(Signed) W. W. BORST, Supt." 

In addition to narrow gauge locomotives for the United 
States, this branch of the product has included a large number of 
three feet, meter, and three and one-half feet gauge locomotives, 
which have been shipped to various parts of the world. 

Locomotives for single-rail railroads were built in 1878 and 
early in 1879, adapted respectively to the systems of General 
Roy Stone and Mr. W. W. Riley. 


Mine locomotives, generally of narrow gauge, for under- 
ground work, and not over five and one-half feet in height, were 
first built in 1870. These machines were generally four-wheels- 
connected, with inside cylinders and a crank axle. The width 
over all of this plan was only sixteen inches greater than the 
gauge of the track. A number of outside-connected mine loco- 
motives were also constructed, the width being thirty-two inches 
greater than the gauge of the track. A locomotive of twenty 
inches gauge for a gold mine in California was built in 1876, and 
was found entirely practicable and efficient. 

In 1870, in some locomotives for the Kansas Pacific Railway, 
the steel tires were shrunk on without being secured by bolts or 
rivets in any form, and since that time this method of putting on 
tires has been usually employed. 

In 1871, forty locomotives were constructed for the Ohio and 
Mississippi Railway, the gauge of which was changed from six 
feet to four feet nine inches. The entire lot of forty locomotives 
was completed and delivered in about twelve weeks. The gauge 
of the road was changed on July 4, and the forty locomotives went 
at once into service in operating the line on the standard gauge. 

During the same year two "double-ender" locomotives of 
Class 10-26-J^-C were constructed for the Central Railroad of 
New Jersey, and were the first of this pattern at these Works. 

The product of the Works, which had been steadily increas- 
ing for some years in sympathy with the requirements of the 
numerous new railroads which were constructing, reached three 
hundred and thirty-one locomotives in 1871, and four hundred 
and twenty- two in 1872. Orders for ninety locomotives for the 
Northern Pacific Railroad were entered during 1870-71, and for 
one hundred and twenty-four for the Pennsylvania Railroad 
during 1872-73, and mostly executed during those years. A con- 
tract was also made during 1872 with the Veronej-Rostoff Rail- 
way of Russia for ten locomotives to burn Russian anthracite coal. 
Six were Moguls, with cylinders nineteen by twenty-four inches 
and driving wheels four and one-half feet diameter; and four were 
passenger locomotives, American pattern, with cylinders seven- 
teen by twenty-four inches, and driving wheels five and one-half 
feet diameter. Nine American pattern locomotives, with fifteen 


by twenty-four inch cylinders, and five feet driving wheels, were 
also constructed in 1872-73 for the Hango-Hyvinge Railway of 

Early in 1873, Mr. Baird retired from the business, having 
sold his interest in the Works to his five partners. Mr. Baird 
died May 19, -1877. A new firm was formed under the style of 
Burnham, Parry, Williams & Co., dating from January 1, 1873, 
and Mr. John H. Converse, who had been connected with the 
Works since 1870, became a partner. The product of this year 
was four hundred and thirty-seven locomotives, the greatest in 
the history of the business up to that time. During a part of the 
year ten locomotives per week were turned out. Nearly three 
thousand men were employed. Forty-five locomotives for the 
Grand Trunk Railway of Canada were built in August, September 
and October, 1873, and all were delivered in five weeks after ship- 
ment of the first. These locomotives were built to meet the re- 
quirements of a change of gauge from five and one-half feet to four 
feet eight and one-half inches. In November, 1873, under cir- 
cumstances of special urgency, a small locomotive for the Meier 
Iron Company of St. Louis, was wholly made from the raw 
material in sixteen working days. 

The financial difficulties which prevailed throughout the 
United States, beginning in September, 1873, and affecting chiefly 
the railroad interests and all branches of manufacture connected 
therewith, operated, of course, to curtail the production of loco- 
motives for quite a period. Hence, only two hundred and five 
locomotives were built in 1874, and one hundred and thirty in 
1875. Among these may be enumerated two sample locomo- 
tives for burning anthracite coal (one passenger, sixteen by 
twenty-four inch cylinders, and one Mogul freight, eighteen by 
twenty-four inch cylinders) for the Technical Department of the 
Russian Government; also twelve Mogul freight locomotives, 
nineteen by twenty-four inch cylinders, for the Charkoff 
Nicolaieff Railroad of Russia. A small locomotive to work by 
compressed air, for drawing street cars, was constructed during 
1874 for the Compressed Air Locomotive and Street Car Com- 
pany, of Louisville, Ky. It had cylinders seven by twelve inches, 
and four wheels coupled, thirty inches in diameter. Another 


and smaller locomotive, to work by compressed air, was con- 
structed three years later for the Plymouth Cordage Company, 
of Massachusetts, for service on a track in and about their works. 
It had cylinders five by ten inches, four wheels coupled, twenty- 
four inches diameter, and weighed seven thousand pounds; and 
was successfully employed for the work required. 

In 1875 the Baldwin Locomotive Works acquired a control- 
ling interest in the Standard Steel Works, located at Burnham, 

The year 1876, noted as the year of the Centennial Inter- 
national Exhibition, in Philadelphia, brought some increase of 
business, and two hundred and thirty-two locomotives were con- 
structed. An exhibit consisting of eight locomotives was pre- 
pared for this occasion. With the view of illustrating not only 
the different types of American locomotives, but the practice of 
different railroads, the exhibit consisted chiefly of locomotives 
constructed to fill orders from various railroad companies of the 
United States and from the Imperial Government of Brazil. A 
Consolidation locomotive for burning anthracite coal, for the 
Lehigh Valley Railroad, for which line the first locomotive of this 
type was designed and built in 1866; a similar locomotive, to 
burn bituminous coal, and a passenger locomotive for the same 
fuel for the Pennsylvania Railroad; a Mogul freight locomotive, 
the "Principe do Grao Para," for the Dom Pedro Segundo Rail- 
way of Brazil, and a passenger locomotive (anthracite burner) for 
the Central Railroad of New Jersey, comprised the larger loco- 
motives contributed by these Works to the Exhibition of 1876. 
To these were added a mine locomotive and two narrow (three 
feet) gauge locomotives, which were among those used in working 
the Centennial Narrow Gauge Railway. As this line was in 
many respects unique, we subjoin the following extracts from an 
account by its General Manager of the performance of the two 
three feet gauge locomotives: 

"The gauge of the line was three feet, with double track three and a 
half miles long, or seven miles in all. For its length, it was probably the 
most crooked road in the world, being made up almost wholly of curves, 
in order to run near all the principal buildings on the Exhibition grounds. 
Many of these curves were on our heaviest grades, some having a radius of 
215, 230 and 250 feet on grades of 140 and 155 feet per mile. These are 


unusually heavy grades and curves, and when combined as we had them, 
with only a thirty-five pound iron rail, made the task for our engines exceed- 
ingly difficult. 

"Your locomotive 'Schuylkill,' Class 8-18-C (eight-wheeled, four wheels 
coupled three and a half feet diameter; cylinders, twelve by sixteen; weight, 
forty-two thousand six hundred and fifty pounds), began service May 13th, and 
made one hundred and fifty-six days to the close of the Exhibition. The loco- 
motive 'Delaware,' Class 8-18-D (eight- wheeled, six wheels coupled three feet 
diameter; cylinders, twelve by sixteen; weight, thirty-nine thousand pounds), 
came into service June 9th, and made one hundred and thirty-one days to the 
close of the Exhibition. The usual load of each engine was five eight-wheeled 
passenger cars, frequently carrying over one hundred passengers per car. 
On special occasions, as many as six and seven loaded cars have been drawn 
by one of these engines. 

"Each engine averaged fully sixteen trips daily, equal to fifty-six miles, 
and as the stations were but a short distance apart, the Westinghouse air 
brake was applied in making one hundred and sixty daily stops, or a total of 
twenty-five thousand for each engine. Neither engine was out of service 
an hour, unless from accidents for which they were in no way responsible." 

[NoxE. Average weight of each loaded car about twelve gross tons.] 

The year 1876 was also marked by an extension of locomo- 
tive engineering to a new field in the practice of these Works. 
In the latter part of the previous year an experimental steam 
street car was constructed for the purpose of testing the appli- 
cability of steam to street railways. This car was completed in 
November, 1875, and was tried for a few days on a street railway 
in Philadelphia. It was then sent to Brooklyn, December 25, 
1875, where it ran from that time until June, 1876. One engineer 
ran the car and kept it in working order. Its consumption of 
fuel was between seven and eight pounds of coal per mile run. 
It drew regularly, night and morning, an additional car, with 
passengers going into New York in the morning, and returning 
at night. On several occasions, where speed was practicable, 
the car was run at the rate of sixteen to eighteen miles per hour. 

In June, 1876, this car was withdrawn from the Atlantic 
Avenue Railway of Brooklyn, and placed on the Market Street 
Railway of Philadelphia. It worked on that line with fair success, 
and very acceptably to the public, from June till nearly the close 
of the Centennial Exhibition. 

This original steam car was built with cylinders under the 
body of the car, the connecting rods taking hold of a crank axle, 


to which the front wheels were attached. The rear wheels of the 
car were independent, and not coupled with the front wheels. 
The machinery of the car was attached to an iron bed plate 
bolted directly to the wooden frame work of the car body. The 
experiment with this car demonstrated to the satisfaction of its 
builders the mechanical practicability of the use of steam on 
street railways, but the defects developed by this experimental 
car were: first, that it was difficult, or impossible, to make a 
crank axle which would not break, the same experience being 
reached in this respect which had already presented itself in 
locomotive construction; second, it was found that great objec- 
tion existed to attaching the machinery to the wooden car body, 
which was not sufficiently rigid for the purpose, and which 


suffered by being racked and strained by the working of the 

For these reasons this original steam car was reconstructed, 
in accordance with the experience which nearly a year's service 
had suggested. The machinery was made outside-connected, 
the" same as an ordinary locomotive, and a strong iron frame- 
work was designed entirely independent of the car body, and 
supporting the boiler and all the machinery. 

The car as thus reconstructed was named the "Baldwin," 
and is shown by the accompanying illustration. 

The next step in this direction was the construction of a 
separate motor, to which one or more cars could be attached. 


Such a machine, weighing about sixteen thousand pounds, was 
constructed in the fall of 1876, and sent to the Citizen's Railway 
of Baltimore, which had a maximum grade of seven feet per 
hundred, or three hundred and sixty-nine and six-tenths feet per 
mile. It ascended this grade drawing one loaded car, when the 
tracks were covered with mixed snow and dirt to a depth of eight 
to ten inches in places. Another and smaller motor, weighing 
only thirteen thousand pounds, was constructed about the same 
time for the Urbano Railway, of Havana, Cuba. Orders for other 
similar machines followed, and during the ensuing years, 1877-80, 
one hundred and seven separate motors and twelve steam cars 
were included in the product. Various city and suburban railways 


were constructed with the especial view of employing steam 
power, and were equipped with these machines. One line, the 
Hill and West Dubuque Street Railway, of Dubuque, Iowa, 
was constructed early in 1877, of three and one half feet gauge 
with a maximum gradient of nine in one hundred, and was 
worked exclusively by two of these motors. The details and 
character of construction of these machines were essentially the 
same locomotive work, but they were made so as to be sub- 
stantially noiseless, and to show little or no smoke and steam 
in operation. 

Steel fireboxes with vertical corrugations in the side sheets 
were first made by these Works early in 1876, in locomotives for 
the Central Railroad of New Jersey, and for the Delaware, 
Lackawanna and Western Railway. 

The first American locomotives for New South Wales and 
Queens were constructed by the Baldwin Locomotive Works 
in 1877, and have since been succeeded by additional orders. 


Six locomotives of the Consolidation type for three and one- 
half feet gauge were also constructed in the latter year for the 
Government Railways of New Zealand, and two freight locomo- 
tives, six- wheels-connected, with forward truck, for the Govern- 
ment of Victoria. Four similar locomotives (ten-wheeled, six 
coupled, with sixteen by twenty-four inch cylinders) were also 
built during the same year for the Norwegian State Railways. 

Forty heavy Mogul locomotives (nineteen by twenty- 
four inch cylinders, driving wheels four and one-half feet in diam- 
eter) were constructed early in 1878 for two Russian Railways 
(the Koursk Charkoff Azof, and the Orel Griazi). The definite 
order for these locomotives was received on the sixteenth of 
December, 1877, and as all were required to be delivered in 
Russia by the following May, especial despatch was necessary. 
The working force was increased from eleven hundred to twenty- 
three hundred men in about two weeks. The first of the forty 
engines was erected and tried under steam on January 5th, three 
weeks after receipt of order, and was finished, ready to dismantle 
and pack for shipment, one week later. The last engine of this 
order was completed February 13th. The forty engines were 
thus constructed in about eight weeks, besides twenty-eight 
additional engines on other orders, which were constructed, 
wholly or partially, and shipped during the same period. 

Four tramway motors of twelve tons weight were built early 
in 1879, on the order of the New South Wales Government, for 
a tramway having grades of six per cent., and running from the 
railway terminus to the Sydney Exhibition Grounds. Subse- 
quent orders followed for additional motors for other tramways 
in Sydney. 

The five thousandth locomotive, finished in April, 1880, 
presented some novel features. It was designed for fast passen- 
ger service on the Bound Brook line between Philadelphia and 
New York, and to run with a light train at a speed of sixty miles 
per hour, using anthracite coal as fuel. It had cylinders eighteen 
by twenty-four inches, one pair of driving wheels six and one-half 
feet in diameter, and a pair of trailing wheels forty-five inches in 
diameter, and equalized with the driving wheels. Back of the 
driving wheels and over the trailing wheels space was given for 



a wide firebox (eight feet long by seven feet wide inside) as 
required for anthracite coal. By an auxiliary steam cylinder 
placed under the waist of the boiler, just in front of the firebox, 
the bearings on the equalizing beams between trailing and 
driving wheels could be changed to a point forward of their 
normal position, so as to increase the weight on the driving 
wheels when required. The adhesion could thus be varied 
between the limits of thirty-five thousand and forty-five thousand 
pounds on the single pair of driving wheels. This feature of the 
locomotive was made the subject of a patent. 

In 1881, a compressed air locomotive was constructed for 
the Pneumatic Tramway Engine Company, of New York, on 
plans prepared by Mr. Robert 
Hardie. Air tanks of steel, one- 
half inch thick, with a capacity 
of four hundred and sixty-five 
cubic feet, were combined with 
an upright cylindrical heater, 
thirty-two and five-eighths 
inches in diameter. The weight 
of the machine was thirty-five 
thousand pounds, of which 
twenty-eight thousand pounds 
were on four driving wheels, 
forty-two inches in diameter. 

The cylinders were twelve and one-half inches diameter by 
eighteen inches stroke. Another novelty of the year was a 
steam car to take the place of a hand car. The accompanying 
illustration shows the design. Its cylinders were four by ten 
inches, and wheels twenty-four inches diameter. Built for 
standard gauge track, its weight in working order was five 
thousand one hundred and ten pounds. Similar cars have since 
been constructed. 

During this year the largest single order placed on the books 
to that date was entered for the Mexican National Construction 
Company. It was for one hundred and fifty locomotives, but 
only a portion of them were ever built. 

The year 1882 was marked by a demand for locomotives 



greater than could be met by the capacity of existing locomotive 
works. Orders for one thousand three hundred and twenty-one 
locomotives were entered on the books during the year, deliveries 
of the greater part being promised only in the following year. 
Early in 1882 an inquiry was received from the Brazilian 
Government for locomotives for the Cantagallo Railway, which 
were required to meet the following conditions: to haul a train 
of forty gross tons of cars and lading up a grade of eight and 
three-tenths per cent. (four hundred and thirty-eight feet 
per mile), occurring in combination with curves of forty metres 
radius (one hundred and thirty-one feet radius, or forty-three and 
eight-tenths degrees). The line was laid with heavy steel rails, 
to a gauge of one and one-tenth metres, or three feet seven and 
one-third inches. The track upon which it was proposed to 
run these locomotives was a constant succession of reverse curves, 
it being stated that ninety-one curves of the radius named oc- 
curred within a distance of three thousand four hundred and 
twenty-nine metres, or about two miles. The line had previously 
been operated on the "Fell" system, with central rack-rail, and it 
w r as proposed to introduce locomotives working by ordinary 
adhesion, utilizing the central rail for the application of brake 
power. An order was eventually received to proceed with the 
construction of three locomotives to do this work. The engines 
built were of the following general dimensions, viz.: cylinders, 
eighteen by twenty inches; six driving wheels, connected, thirty- 
nine inches in diameter; wheel base, nine feet six inches; boiler, 
fifty-four inches in diameter, with one hundred and ninety flues 
two inches diameter, ten feet nine inches long; and with side 
tanks, carried on the locomotive. In March, 1883, they were 
shipped from Philadelphia, and on a trial made October 17, in 
the presence of the officials of the road and other prominent 
railway officers, the guaranteed performance was accomplished. 
One of the engines pulled a train weighing forty tons, composed 
of three freight cars loaded with sleepers, and one passenger car, 
and made the first distance of eight kilometres to Boca do Mato 
with a speed of twenty-four kilometres per hour; from there it 
started, making easily an acclivity of eight and five-tenths per cent, 
in grade, and against a curve of forty metres in radius. Eight 


additional locomotives for this line were constructed at intervals 
during the following ten years, and the road has been worked by 
adhesion locomotives since their adoption as above described. 

In 1885 a locomotive was built for the Dom Pedro Segundo 
Railway of Brazil, having five pairs of driving wheels connected, 
and a leading two-wheeled truck. From this has arisen the 
title "Decapod" (having ten feet) as applied to subsequent loco- 
motives of this type. Its cylinders were twenty-two by twenty- 
six inches; driving wheels forty-five inches diameter, and grouped 
in a driving wheel base of seventeen feet. The rear flanged 
driving wheels, however, were given one-quarter of an inch more 
total play on the rails than the next adjacent pair; the second 

For the Dom Pedro Segundo Railway of Brazil 

and third pairs were without flanges, and the front pair was 
flanged. The locomotive could therefore pass a curve of a radius 
as short as five hundred feet, the rails being spread one-half inch 
wider than the gauge of track, as is usual on curves. The flanges 
of the first and fourth pairs of driving wheels making practically 
a rigid wheel base of twelve feet eight inches, determined the 
friction on a curve. The weight of the engine, in working order, 
was one hundred and forty-one thousand pounds, of which one 
hundred and twenty-six thousand pounds were on the driving 
wheels. During this year the first rack-rail locomotive in the 
practice of these Works was constructed for the Ferro Principe 
do Grao Para Railroad of Brazil. Its general dimensions were : 
cylinders, twelve by twenty inches; pitch line of cog-wheel, 
forty-one and thirty-five one-hundredths inches; weight, fifteen 
and seventy-four one-hundredths tons. Several additional similar 


locomotives, but of different weights, have since been constructed 
for the same line. 

At the close of this year Mr. Edward Longstreth withdrew 
from the firm on account of ill health, and a new partnership 
was formed, adding Messrs. William C. Stroud, William H. 
Morrow, and William L. Austin. Mr. Stroud had been connected 
with the business since 1867, first as bookkeeper, and subse- 
quently as Financial Manager. Mr. Morrow, since entering 
the service in 1871, had acquired a varied and valuable experi- 
ence, first in the accounts, then in the department of extra 
work, and subsequently as Assistant Superintendent, becoming 
General Manager on Mr. Longstreth's retirement. Mr. Austin, 
who entered the works in 1870, had for several years been assist- 
ant to Mr. Henszey in all matters connected with the designing 
of locomotives. 

On February 11, 1886, Mr. S. M. Vauclain, who had been 
connected with the Works since 1883, was appointed General 
Superintendent. The retirement of Mr. Longstreth was neces- 
sarily followed by a number of changes in the organization. Mr. 
Edwin W 7 . Heald, who had been assisting Mr. Longstreth and 
was in line for promotion to the position of General Super- 
intendent, was unable to assume the duties of the office on 
account of poor health, hence Mr. Vauclain's appointment. 

A locomotive for the Antofogasta Railway (thirty inches 
gauge) of Chili, constructed with outside frames, was completed 

For the Antofogasta Railway, Chili 

in November, 1886, and is shown by the illustration herewith. 
The advantages of this method of construction of narrow gauge 
locomotives in certain cases were evidenced in the working of 


this machine, in giving a greater width of firebox between the 
frames, and a greater stability of the engine due to the outside 
journal bearings. 

In 1887, a new form of boiler was brought out in some ten- 
wheeled locomotives constructed for the Denver and Rio Grande 
Railroad. A long wagon-top was used, extending sufficiently 
forward of the crown sheet to allow the dome to be placed in 
front of the firebox and near the center of the boiler, and the 
crown sheet was supported by radial stays from the outside shell. 
Many boilers of this type have since been constructed. 

Mr. Charles T. Parry, who had been connected with the 
Works almost from their beginning, and a partner since 1867, 
died on July 18, 1887, after an illness of several months. 

The first locomotives for Japan were shipped in June, 1887. 
These were two six-wheeled engines of three feet six inches gauge 
for the Mie Kie mines. 

Mr. William H. Morrow, a partner since January 1, 1886, 
and who had been previously associated with the business since 
1871, died February 19, 1888. 

The demand for steam motors for street railway service 
attained large proportions at this period, and ninety-five were 
built during the years 1888 
and 1889. Two rack-rail loco- 
motives on the Riggenbach 
system, one with a single 
cog-wheel and four carrying 
wheels, and weighing in work- 
ing order thirty-two thousand 
pounds, for the Corcovado 
Railway of Brazil, and the RACK LocOMOTIVE , RIGGENBA CH SYSTEM 
other having two cog-wheels 

and eight carrying wheels, and weighing in working order seventy- 
nine thousand pounds, for the Estrada de Ferro Principe do Grao 
Para of Brazil, were constructed during this year. Illustrations 
of these locomotives are presented herewith. 

The ten thousandth locomotive was built in June, 1889, 
for the Northern Pacific Railroad. This locomotive had twenty- 
two by twenty-eight inch cylinders, and weighed one hundred 


and forty-seven thousand five hundred pounds in working order. 
It was representative of the heaviest class of Consolidation loco- 
motive built at that time. 

In October, 1889, the first compound locomotive in the 

practice of the Works was 
completed and placed on the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 
It was of the four-cylinder 
type, as designed and patented 
by Mr. S. M. Vauclain. The 
economy in fuel and water 

RACK LOCOMOTIVE WITH Two COG-WHEELS and the efficiency of this de- 

sign in both passenger and 

freight service led to its introduction on many leading railroads, 
and Vauclain compound locomotives were built in large numbers 
during the fifteen years following the construction of the first one. 

In 1889 a test case was made to see in how short a time a 
locomotive could be built. On June 22d, Mr. Robert Coleman 
ordered a narrow gauge locomotive of the American type, which 
was to be ready for service on his railroad in Lebanon County, 
Pa., by July 4th following. The locomotive was actually com- 
pleted on July 2d, having been built from the raw material 
in eight working days. 

The manufacture of wrought iron wheel centers for both 
truck and driving wheels was begun at this time under patents 
of Mr. S. M. Vauclain, Nos. 462,605, 462,606 and 531,487. 

During the year 1890, the Erecting Shop, which fronted 
on Broad Street, adjoining the main office, was entirely recon- 
structed. The new shop was a single-story building, 42 feet 
high to the eaves, and measuring 160 feet wide by 337 feet long. 
It contained nineteen tracks, each capable of accommodating 
four locomotives. All the machinery in the shop w r as driven by 
electric motors, and material was handled by two electric travel- 
ling cranes of 100 tons capacity each. This is the first instance 
on record of a shop being electrically equipped throughout. 

In 1890 the first rack-rail locomotive on the Abt system was 
constructed for the Pike's Peak Railroad, and during this year 
and 1893 four locomotives were built for working the grades 



of that line, which vary from eight to twenty-five per cent. 
One of these locomotives, weighing in working order fifty-two 
thousand six hundred and eighty pounds, pushes twenty-five 
thousand pounds up the maximum grades of one in four. An 
illustration is here given of 
one of these locomotives, 
which is a four-cylinder 

Three Mogul locomo- 
tives, of one metre gauge, 
fifteen by eighteen inch 
cylinders, driving wheels 
forty-one inches diameter, 
were completed and shipped 
in July, 1890, for working 

the Jaffa and Jerusalem Railway in Palestine, and two additional 
locomotives for the same line were constructed in 1892. 

In 1891 the name of the firm was changed to Burnham, 
Williams & Co., the partners being George Burnham, Edward 
H. Williams, William P. Henszey, John H. Converse, William 
C. Stroud, and William L. Austin. 

In 1891 the largest locomotives in the practice of the Works, 
to that date, were designed and constructed for the St. Clair 
Tunnel of the Grand Trunk Railway, under the St. Clair River. 

Four tank locomotives 
were supplied, each 
with cylinders twenty- 
two by twenty-eight 
inches; five pairs of 
driving wheels con- 
nected, fifty inches di- 
ameter; and side tanks 
of twenty-one hundred 
and ten gallons capacity. The weight in working order of each 
engine was one hundred and eighty-six thousand eight hundred 
pounds without fire in the firebox. The tunnel is six thousand 
feet long, with grades of two per cent, at each entrance, twenty- 
five hundred, and nineteen hundred and fifty feet long respec- 



tively. Each locomotive was required to take a train load of seven 
hundred and sixty tons exclusive of its own weight, and in actual 
operation each of these locomotives has hauled from twenty- 
five to thirty-three loaded cars in one train through the tunnel. 
For the New York, Lake Erie and Western Railroad, five 
compound locomotives of the Decapod class were completed 
in December, 1891. Their general dimensions were as follows: 
cylinders, high-pressure sixteen inches, low-pressure twenty- 
seven inches diameter, stroke twenty-eight inches; five pairs of 
driving wheels coupled, fifty inches diameter, in a wheel base of 
eighteen feet ten inches; boiler, seventy-six inches diameter, 
of theWootten type; weight in working order, one hundred and 
ninety-five thousand pounds; and weight on driving wheels, one 
hundred and seventy-two thousand pounds. The first, fourth 

and fifth pairs of driving 
wheels were flanged, but 
the fifth pair had one- 
fourth inch additional play 
on the track. These lo- 
comotives were used as 
pushers on the Susque- 
hanna Hill, where curves of 
five degrees are combined 

RACK-RAIL LOCOMOTIVE FOR ITALY with grades of sixty feet 

per mile, doing the work of 

two ordinary Consolidation locomotives. From one thousand 
two hundred and fifty to one thousand three hundred net tons 
of cars and lading, making a train of forty-five loaded cars, were 
hauled by one of these locomotives in connection with a twenty 
by twenty-four inch cylinder Consolidation. 

Mr. William C. Stroud, who had been a partner since 1886, 
died on September 21, 1891. 

The first locomotives for Africa were constructed during this 
year. They were of the Mogul type, with cylinders eighteen 
by twenty-two inches, driving wheels forty-eight inches diameter, 
and of three feet six inches gauge. 

The product of 1892 and 1893 included, as novelties, two 
rack-rail locomotives for a mountain railway near Florence, 


Italy, and twenty-five compound Forney locomotives for the 
South Side Elevated Railroad of Chicago. At the World's 
Columbian Exposition in Chicago, May to October, 1893, in- 
clusive, an exhibit was made, consisting of seventeen locomo- 
tives, as follows: 

STANDARD GAUGE. A Decapod locomotive, similar to those 
previously described, built in 1891 for the New York, Lake Erie 
and Western Railroad. A high-speed locomotive of new type, with 
Vauclain compound cylinders, a two-wheeled leading truck, two 
pairs of driving wheels, and a pair of trailing wheels under the 
firebox. This locomotive was named "Columbia," and the same 
name has been applied to the type. An express passenger loco- 
motive of the pattern used by the Central Railroad of New Jersey; 
one of the pattern used by the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, 
and one of the pattern used by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 
The three roads mentioned together operated the "Royal Blue 
Line" between New York and Washington. A saddle tank 
double-ender type locomotive, with steam windlass, illustrating 
typical logging locomotive practice. A single expansion Ameri- 
can type locomotive with cylinders eighteen by twenty-four 
inches. A single expansion Mogul locomotive with cylinders 
nineteen by twenty-four inches. A single expansion ten-wheeled 
freight locomotive with cylinders twenty by .twenty-four inches, 
for the Baltimore and Ohio Southwestern Railroad. A compound 
ten-wheeled passenger locomotive shown in connection with a 
train exhibited by the Pullman Car Company. A compound 
Consolidation locomotive for the Norfolk and Western Railroad. 

Three locomotives were shown in connection with the 
special exhibit of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, viz.: one com- 
pound, one single-expansion, and one ten-wheeled passenger 

NARROW GAUGE. A metre gauge compound American 
type locomotive ; a three feet gauge ten-wheeled compound loco- 
motive with outside frames, for the Mexican National Railroad; 
and a thirty inch gauge saddle tank locomotive for mill or 
furnace work. 

The depression of business which began in the summer 
of 1893, reduced the output of the Works for that year to seven 



hundred and seventy-two, and in 1894 to three hundred and 
thirteen locomotives. Early in 1895, a new type of passenger 
locomotive, illustrated herewith, was brought out for the Atlantic 
Coast Line. To this the name "Atlantic" type was given. The 
advantages of this design are a large boiler, fitting the engine for 


high speed; a firebox of liberal proportions and of desirable 
form placed over the rear frames, and having ample depth 
and width; and the location of the driving wheels in front of 
the firebox, allowing the boiler to be placed lower than in the 
ordinary American or Ten-wheeled type. For the enginemen, 
who, in this class of locomotive, ride behind, instead of over the 
driving wheels, greater ease in riding, and greater safety in case 
of the breakage of a side-rod, are important advantages. 

The first electric locomotive was constructed in 1895, and 
was intended for experimental work for account of the North 

American Company. The 

;jj|K"SiHn*iii^j -. electrical parts were 

m f^^lP^ designed by Messrs. 

Sprague, Duncan & 
Hutchison, Electrical En- 
gineers, New York. Two 
other electric locomotives 
for use in connection with 

ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE mining operations were 

built in 1896, in co-opera- 
tion with the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Com- 
pany, which supplied the electrical parts. 

A high speed passenger locomotive, embracing several novel 
features, was built in 1895, for service on the New York division 


of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad. The boiler was of 
the Wootten type, the cylinders were compound, thirteen and 
twenty-two by twenty-six inches, and the driving wheels (one 
pair) were eighty-four and one-quarter inches diameter. The 
cut below shows the general design. 

The weight of the engine in working order was as follows: 
On front truck, thirty-nine thousand pounds; on trailing wheels, 
twenty-eight thousand pounds; on the driving wheels, forty- 
eight thousand pounds. This locomotive and a duplicate built 
in the following year were regularly used in passenger service, 

For the Philadelphia and Reading Railway 

hauling five cars and making the distance between Jersey City 
and Philadelphia, ninety miles, in one hundred and five minutes, 
including six stops. 

In July, 1895, a combination rack and adhesion locomotive 
was constructed for the San Domingo Improvement Company. 
This locomotive was designed by Messrs. Wm. P. Henszey and 
S. M. Vauclain, and was made the subject of a patent. It 
had compound cylinders eight inches and thirteen inches 
diameter by eighteen inches stroke to operate two pairs 
of coupled adhesion wheels, 
and a pair of single expansion 
cylinders, eleven inches by 
eighteen inches, to operate a 
single rack wheel constructed 
upon the Abt system. It was 
furnished with two complete 


sets of machinery, entirely For the San Domingo i mprov ement Co. 
independent of each other, 

and was built with the view eventually to remove the rack 
attachments and operate the locomotive by adhesion alone. 



During the years 1895 and 1896 contracts were executed for 
several railroads in Russia, aggregating one hundred and thirty- 
eight locomotives of the four-cylinder compound type. 

On January 1, 1896, 
Messrs. Samuel M. Vau- 
clain, Alba B. Johnson, and 
George Burnham, Jr., were 
admitted to partnership. 

Two combination rack 
and adhesion locomotives, 
for the Penoles Mining 

For the Penoles Mining Co. . * 

built in 1896, having com- 
pound cylinders nine and one-half and fifteen inches diameter 
by twenty-two inches stroke, connected to the driving wheels 
through walking beams. 

Each locomotive had three coupled axles, which carried rack 
pinions of the Abt system. When operating on the rack section 
of the line, all the wheels ran loose on the axles, and acted as 



carrying wheels only. When, however, it was necessary to 
propel the locomotive by adhesion alone, two pairs of wheels 
could be secured to their respective axles, and thus made to 
turn with them, by means of clutches. These clutches were 
controlled by a hand lever placed in the cab. This device was 
made the subject of a patent, which was granted to Messrs. 
S. M. Vauclain and J. Y. McConnell. The drawing of the 
clutch mechanism on page 84 is reproduced from the patent 

In the latter part of the year 1896, six locomotives were 
built for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, for express passenger 
service. One of these locomotives, No. 1312, is here illustrated. 
They were of the Ten-wheeled type, with cylinders twenty-one by 
twenty-six inches, driving wheels seventy-eight inches diameter, 
and weighed each, in working order, about one hundred and 

For Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 

forty-five thousand pounds, about one hundred and thirteen 
thousand pounds of which were on the driving wheels. These 
locomotives handled the fast passenger trains on the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad running between Philadelphia, Baltimore and 
Washington with great efficiency for about fifteen years, when 
they were replaced by heavier power. 

Early in 1897, a group of unusually interesting locomotives 
were shipped to the Nippon Railway (Japan). These loco- 
motives were all designed to burn a most inferior quality of coal, 
requiring large grate area and a firebox of ample depth and 
volume. They were of two types the Atlantic, for passenger 
service, and a modified design of Consolidation for freight 
service. The latter had a wide, deep firebox, which was placed 



entirely back of the driving wheels and over a rear truck. The 
accompanying illustration represents the design. All these 
locomotives proved highly successful. Freight locomotives of a 
design similar to those built for the Nippon Railway, were 
subsequently introduced in the United States, and were ap- 
propriately designated the "Mikado" type. 


In the summer of 1897, the Reading Railway placed a fast 
train on its Atlantic City Division, allowing fifty- two minutes 
for running time from Camden to Atlantic City, a distance of 
fifty-five and one-half miles, making the average rate of speed 
sixty-four miles per hour. The trains averaged five and six cars, 
having a total weight of about two hundred tons, not including 
the engine and tender. This train was hauled by a locomo- 
tive of the Atlantic type, having Vauclain compound cylinders, 
thirteen and twenty-two inches in diameter by twenty-six inches 
stroke, with driving wheels eighty-four and one-quarter inches in 
diameter. The weight in working order on driving wheels was 

For Philadelphia and Reading Railway 

seventy-eight thousand six hundred pounds, the total weight of 
engine and tender complete being two hundred and twenty-seven 
thousand pounds. The records show that for fifty-two days from 


July 2d to August 31, 1897, the average time consumed on the 
run was forty-eight minutes, equivalent to a uniform rate of 
speed from start to stop of sixty-nine miles per hour. On one 
occasion the distance was covered in forty-six and one-half 
minutes, an average of seventy-one and six-tenths miles per hour. 
The Railway Company's official record of the train for the season 
is reproduced on the following page. The service proved so 
popular that additional trains, making equally high speed, were 
subsequently established. 

In 1898, the first cast steel frames used by the Baldwin 
Locomotive Works were applied to a consignment of Consolida- 
tion locomotives built for the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 
Railway Company. 

In November, 1898, a locomotive was built for the Lehigh 
Valley Railroad for use on the mountain cut-off between Coxton 
and Fairview, near Wilkesbarre. This locomotive was of the 
Consolidation type, with Vauclain compound cylinders, and of 
the following general dimensions: cylinders, eighteen and thirty 
inches diameter, thirty inches stroke; driving wheels, fifty-five 
inches outside diameter; weight in working order, on drivers, 
two hundred and two thousand two hundred and thirty-two 
pounds; weight, total engine, two hundred and twenty-six 
thousand pounds; weight of engine and tender about three 
hundred and forty-six thousand pounds. This locomotive was 

For Lehigh Valley Railroad 

guaranteed to haul a load of one thousand net tons exclusive of 
the weight of the engine and tender, on a grade of sixty-six feet 
per mile, at an average speed of seventeen miles per hour. It 
fulfilled this guarantee and fourteen similar locomotives were 
subsequently ordered by this Company. 





In March, 1899, two locomotives were built for the Chicago, 
Burlington and Quincy Railroad, for the fast mail service west of 
Chicago. These were of the Atlantic type with Vauclain com- 
pound cylinders, thirteen and one-half and twenty-three inches 
in diameter, and twenty-six inches stroke; driving wheels eighty- 
four and one-quarter inches in diameter; weight, in working 

For Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad 

order, eighty-five thousand eight hundred and fifty pounds on 
driving wheels, and one hundred and fifty-nine thousand pounds 
total of engine. The total weight of engine and tender complete 
was about two hundred and fifty-four thousand pounds. An 
illustration of one of these locomotives is shown above. 

Dr. Edward H. Williams, who had been connected with the 
Works as a partner since 1870, died December 21, 1899, at Santa 
Barbara, California. 

The year 1899 was marked by a large increase in foreign 
business, notably in England and France. Contracts were made 
in England covering thirty locomotives for the Midland Railway, 
twenty locomotives for the Great Northern Railway, and twenty 
locomotives for the Great Central Railway. Ten locomotives 
were also ordered by the French State Railways, and ten by the 
Bone Guelma Railway, in the French colonies of Algiers. 

For the Bavarian State Railways 


In the fall of this year two Vauclain compound Consolidation 
freight locomotives were built for the Bavarian State Railways. 
These were ordered as samples, the company practically announc- 
ing its intention of modeling future locomotives for their freight 
traffic after these engines. So well did these sample locomotives 
perform, that in the following year, the management decided to 
order two passenger engines of the compound Atlantic type, and 
also embody in their passenger motive power the new features 
contained in these machines. 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works exhibited two locomotives 
at the Paris Exposition of 1900 a "goods" locomotive of the 
Mogul type for the Great Northern Railway, of England, and 
an Atlantic type passenger locomotive for the French State 
Railways. The exhibit of the French State Railways also in- 
cluded a compound American type passenger locomotive built 
by the Baldwin Locomotive Works. These engines were built 
in the regular course of business for the companies whose names 
they bore, and went into service on these roads immediately after 
the Exposition was over. In this year also large orders were filled 
for the Chinese Eastern Railroad, the Paris-Orleans Railway, the 
Finland State, the Egyptian State and the Belgian State Rail- 

The beginning of the twentieth century witnessed great 
industrial prosperity in America and large demands for rail- 
way freight transportation. The introduction of cars of large 
capacity became general on American railroads, a tendency 

For the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway 

which had been gradually developing for some years. This 
involved increased train tonnage, improved road beds, heavier 
rails, stronger bridges and more powerful locomotives. The 


locomotive has always reflected the changes in railroad prac- 
tice. Just as the demand for increased horse power, involving 
greater steaming capacity and a larger grate area, evolved the 
Atlantic type engine from the American or eight-wheeled pas- 
senger engine; so, in order to secure a locomotive with ample 
heating surface and suitable firebox to handle heavy trains at 
high speed, the Prairie type was designed, being a logical develop- 
ment of the Mogul and Ten-wheeled engines. The Prairie type 
engine has a leading pony truck, three pairs of driving wheels, 
and a wide firebox extending over the frames and placed back of 
the driving wheels. To support this overhanging weight, a pair 
of trailing wheels is placed underneath the firebox. Fifty loco- 
motives of this type were built for the Chicago, Burlington and 
Quincy Railroad, and forty-five for the Atchison, Topeka and 
Santa Fe Railway, in 1901. 

At the Pan-American Exposition, held at Buffalo, N. Y., 
during 1901, a new departure in locomotive practice was ex- 
hibited by the Baldwin Locomotive Works. This was a Ten- 
wheeled locomotive, built for the Illinois Central Railroad, 
the firebox and tender of which were of special construction, 
embodying the inventions of Mr. Cornelius Vanderbilt, M.E. 
The firebox was cylindrical in form, with annular corrugations, 

With Vanderbilt Boiler and Tender 

its axis eccentric to that of the boiler. It was riveted to the back 
head of the boiler, and was supported at the bottom by the mud 
rings; but otherwise was entirely disconnected from the outer 
shell, thus eliminating stay bolts and crown bars, necessary to 
flat surfaces in usual construction. It was supposed that the 
ease with which the firebox could be removed, and the absence 
of the usual repairs incidental to the renewal of stay bolts, would 


commend it. Defects developed, however, which caused this 
type of boiler to be abandoned after a few years' trial. The 
feature of the tender was a cylindrical instead of the ordinary 
U-shaped tank placed back of the coal space, the advantage being 
a better distribution of weight, and a smaller proportion of dead 
weight to carrying capacity. These tenders are still being built 
when specified by railroad companies. 

The year 1901 was especially noticeable for the large volume 
of domestic business handled, there being great demand for 
motive power from the railroads of the West and Southwest. 
Large orders were placed with the Baldwin Locomotive Works 
in this year by the Union Pacific; Chicago, Burlirrgton and 
Quincy; Choctaw, Oklahoma and Gulf; Toledo, .St. Louis and 
Western; Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe; Chicago and Alton; 
Missouri, Kansas and Texas; Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul, 
and Southern Pacific Railroads. The Pennsylvania Railroad in 
this year, ordered over one hundred and fifty locomotives of 
various types from the Baldwin Locomotive Works, and the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad also placed an order for over one 
hundred locomotives. 

The locomotives built for export, during 1901, included ten 
for the New Zealand Government Railways, which were designed 
to use lignite as fuel. They had three pairs of coupled driving- 
wheels, a four-wheeled leading truck, and a two-wheeled trailing 
truck, over which was placed a deep, wide firebox. This type 
subsequently became known as the "Pacific," and because of its 
high steaming capacity and adhesion, was built in large numbers 
for heavy passenger service in the United States. 

The month of February, 1902, witnessed the completion of 
the twenty thousandth locomotive built by the Baldwin Locomo- 
tive Works. This engine embodied several interesting features, 
including a new arrangement of Vauclain compound cylinders. 
In the compound locomotives previously constructed, a high and 
a low pressure cylinder had been used on each side of the locomo- 
tive, the two cylinders on the same side being placed one above the 
other. In locomotive No. 20,000 the axes of the four cylinders 
were placed in the same horizontal plane, the two high pressure 
cylinders being between the frames and the two low pressure 



outside. The high pressure pistons were connected to cranks, 
placed on the axle of the first pair of driving wheels; while the 
low pressure pistons were connected to crank pins outside the 

Baldwia Engine No. 20,000 

wheels, in the usual manner. With this construction there were 
of course four sets of guides, as well as four crossheads and main 
rods. The two cranks on the axle were placed ninety degrees 
apart, and each of them was one hundred and eighty degrees 
from the corresponding crank pin on the outside of the wheel. 
The two pistons on the same side of the locomotive thus opposed 
one another in movement, starting their strokes simultaneously 


from opposite ends of their respective cylinders. With this con- 
struction, the disturbing effects of the reciprocating weights are 


partially neutralized; and no excess weight need be used in 
counterbalancing the driving wheels. This obviates the so- 
called "hammer blow," which is always present in locomotives 
having outside cylinders only. Balanced compound locomotives, 
as described above, can carry a maximum load on driving wheels 
without detriment to the track, as the greatest pressure on the 
rail is that due to the static wheel load. 

In balanced compound locomotives of the Vauclain type, 
the steam distribution to each pair of cylinders is controlled by 
a single piston valve, so that the valve gear is no more compli- 
cated than that of a single expansion locomotive. Upward of 
five hundred of these locomotives had been built up to the close 
of 1912, the majority of them for fast passenger service. With 
the advent of high temperature superheating, however, the build- 
ing of this type of locomotive for American railroads practically 
ceased . 

The construction of the twenty thousandth locomotive and 
the completion of seventy years of continuous operation were 
celebrated on the evening of February 27, 1902, at the Union 
League, of Philadelphia, by a banquet at which two hundred 
and fifty guests, including many of the most representative men 
in the United States, were present. 

In May, 1902, a Decapod locomotive was built for the 
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. This was the first 
tandem compound in the experience of the Works and the 
heaviest locomotive built up to that time. The total weight of 
the engine alone was two hundred and sixty-seven thousand 
eight hundred pounds, of which two hundred and thirty-seven 
thousand eight hundred pounds were on the five pairs of driving 
wheels. It was designed for heavy freight hauling on the steep 
grades encountered on one section of this road. 

The first locomotive built in the United States to burn 
lignite fuel was constructed in this year for the Bismarck, 
Washburn and Great Falls Railway. The Mikado type was 
selected in order to secure sufficient grate area and firebox volume. 
The design is illustrated on page 95. Mikado type locomotives 
were subsequently built in large numbers for heavy freight 
service in the United States. 



For the Bismarck, Washburn and Great Falls Railway 

The discovery of large quantities of crude petroleum in 
gushers located in the Beaumont oil fields, of Texas, caused 
the railroads tapping this field to adopt, to some extent, this fuel 
on their locomotives. Oil-burning locomotives were built for the 
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe, the Southern Pacific, and the 
Galveston, Houston and Henderson Railroads, in 1902. Since 
that date, oil has practically replaced coal as a locomotive fuel 
in the Southwest. Oil-burning locomotives have also been in- 
troduced in the Pacific Coast District and the far Northwest. 

With the increased use of electrically driven trains for inter- 
urban, elevated and subway traffic, many orders were received 
for electric motor trucks in this year. Electrical locomotives, 
both for surface and mine haulage, showed a marked increase 
in this year also, both in variety of design and the number con- 

In the year 1903 the Baldwin Locomotive Works completed 
two thousand and twenty-two locomotives, its largest annual 

For the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway 

output up to that time. Among these were four four-cylinder 


balanced compound Atlantic type locomotives for the Atchison, 
Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, which proved highly successful. 
The same road received twenty-six single-expansion Pacific type 
locomotives for heavy passenger service, and also a consignment 
of tandem compound locomotives for freight service. These 
engines were similar to the Decapod locomotive previously- 
described, except that a trailing truck was added. This improved 
the curving qualities of the engines when running backward. 
To this type the name Santa Fe was given. 

During the year 1903, standard locomotive designs were 
prepared at these Works for the Associated Lines, which at that 
time comprised the Southern Pacific Company, Union Pacific 
Railroad, Oregon Short Line Railroad, Oregon Railroad and 
Navigation Company, and the Chicago and Alton Railway. 
As the various lines were already equipped with sufficient light 
power, only heavy designs for common standards were adopted. 
Six such designs were prepared: an Atlantic and a Pacific type 
locomotive for passenger service, two sizes of Consolidation 
engines for freight service, a Mogul locomotive for fast freight, 
and a six- wheeled switcher. 

Owing to the rapid increase in the production of the Works, 
additional erecting facilities were required; and in 1903 a new 
erecting shop, arranged on a novel plan, was completed at 
Twenty-sixth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. This shop was 
built in the form of a round house, having twenty-seven stalls, 
with an eighty foot turntable in the center. It was used prin- 
cipally for finishing and testing purposes. 

In 1904 there was a temporary falling off in production, one 
thousand four hundred and eighty-five locomotives being com- 
pleted during that year. At the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 
held at St. Louis, from May to November of this year, the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works exhibited the following locomotives: 

STANDARD GAUGE. A balanced compound Atlantic type 
locomotive, for the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. 
(Illustrated on page 97). A four-cylinder compound Atlantic 
type locomotive for the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Rail- 
road. (This engine had been built two years previously, and 
was withdrawn from service to be placed on exhibition). A 


tandem compound Santa Fe type locomotive for the Atchison, 
Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. An Atlantic type locomotive 
for the Chicago and Alton Railway. A Pacific type locomotive 

For the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway 

for the Union Pacific Railroad. A Consolidation type locomotive 
for the Southern Pacific Company. A Pacific type locomotive 
for the St. Louis and San Francisco Railroad. A two-cylinder 
compound Consolidation type locomotive for the Norfolk and 
Western Railway. A single-expansion Consolidation type loco- 
motive for the Norfolk and Western Railway. A ten-wheeled 
locomotive for the Norfolk and Western Railway. An Atlantic 
type locomotive for the Norfolk and Western Railway. A 
Consolidation type locomotive with Wootten firebox, for the 
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad. A Mogul type 
locomotive for the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway. 

There were also shown four examples of electric trucks, 
which were designed for standard gauge track. 

NARROW GAUGE. An electric mining locomotive for the 
Norfolk Coal and Coke Company. (Gauge three feet six 
inches). An electric mining locomotive for the Berwind-White 
Coal Mining Company. (Gauge three feet). An electric loco- 
motive for industrial haulage. (Gauge two feet). The electric 
locomotives and trucks were exhibited in the Palace of Electricity 
in conjunction with the Westinghouse Electric and Manufactur- 
ing Company, which furnished the electrical equipment. 

During this year three Mallet compound articulated loco- 
motives, designed for meter gauge, were built for the American 
Railroad of Porto Rico. One of these engines is illustrated 
on page 98. These locomotives had three pairs of driving 



wheels, thirty-seven inches in diameter, in each group 
The total weight was one hundred and six thousand six hundred 
and fifty pounds, and the tractive force twenty thousand two 

For the American Railroad of Porto Rico 

hundred pounds working compound. These were the first Mallet 
articulated locomotives built in the experience of the Works. 

Among other interesting locomotives exported during 1904, 
may be mentioned sixteen tank engines for the Imperial Govern- 
ment Railways of Japan. These locomotives had three pairs of 
driving wheels and a two-wheeled rear truck. They were con- 

For the Imperial Government Railways of Japan 

structed with plate frames, in accordance with specifications 
furnished by the railway company. One hundred and fifty 
additional locomotives of the same type were built during the 
following year. 

Toward the close of the year 1904 the output began to in- 
crease, and in 1905, two thousand two hundred and fifty locomo- 
tives were turned out. Among these were five hundred and 


seventy- two engines for the Pennsylvania Railroad System, 
including the lines east and west of Pittsburg. One hundred 
and sixty of these locomotives, all of the Consolidation type, were 
completed between October 10th and November 22d. This year 
witnessed the introduction of the Walschaerts valve motion on 
several American railroads. It was applied to a large number of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad engines above referred to, and also to 
thirty-eight ten-wheeled locomotives for the Chicago, Rock Island 
and Pacific Railway. 

Among the locomotives exported during the year 1905, may 
be mentioned twenty of the ten-wheeled type, built for the New 
South Wales Government Railways. These engines were built 
to the railway company's drawings and specifications. A large 
number of special features, including plate frames and the Allen 
valve motion, entered into their construction. 

During the year 1906 a number of large electric locomotives 
were furnished to the New York, New Haven and Hartford Rail- 
road Company, for the purpose of replacing steam locomotives in 
the vicinity of New York City. Each of these locomotives was 
mounted on two four-wheeled trucks, and equipped with four 
single phase alternating current motors, which rotated the axles 
without intermediate gearing. The nominal capacity of each 
unit was one thousand horsepower. 

In 1906, the Great Northern Railway received five Mallei 
articulated locomotives, which were the heaviest, at that time, 

For the Great Northern Railway 

in the experience of the Works. These locomotives were carried 
on six pairs of driving wheels divided into two groups, and a two- 
wheeled truck front and back. They weighed three hundred and 



fifty-five thousand pounds, of which three hundred and sixteen 
thousand pounds were carried on the driving wheels. One of 
these locomotives is illustrated on the previous page. 

During this year an order was also received for fifty-seven 
balanced compound Prairie type locomotives for the Atchison, 
Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. These locomotives were de- 
signed for fast freight service, and had inside high-pressure 

For the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway 

cylinders, inclined at an angle of seven degrees, in order that their 
main rods could clear the first driving axle. The total weight 
in working order was two hundred and forty-eight thousand 
two hundred pounds, of which the driving wheels carry one 
hundred and seventy-four thousand seven hundred pounds. 
One of them is illustrated above. Thirty-one similar locomotives 
were built in 1907. 

Among the important foreign orders filled during the year 
1906, may be mentioned one from the Italian Government Rail- 

For the Italian Government Railways 

ways for twenty locomotives. The number was equally divided 
between balanced compound ten-wheeled locomotives for pass- 


enger service, and single-expansion Consolidation locomotives 
for freight service. One of the passenger locomotives is illus- 
trated on the previous page. 

Owing to the increasing demand for electric trucks, a new 
shop equipped with the most approved machinery for turning 
out this class of work, was built early in 1906. This shop had 
a capacity of one hundred trucks per week. 

During the same year, a tract of one hundred and eighty- 
four acres was purchased at Eddystone, Pa., about twelve miles 
from the city, where extensive foundries and blacksmith shops 
were erected. The removal of these shops from the Philadelphia 
plant, allowed room for additional machine and erecting shops. 

A life size bronze statue of Matthias W. Baldwin was 
unveiled on June 2, 1906, and presented by the Baldwin Loco- 
motive Works to the Park Commission of the City of Philadel- 
phia. This statue occupies a prominent position in front of the* 
main office. 

On December 31, 1906, Mr. George Burnham, Jr., who 
had been a member of the firm since 1896, retired from the 

On January 29, 1907, fire partially destroyed the shop 
building located at the southeast corner of Fifteenth and Spring 
Garden Streets. The several departments affected were at once 
moved into other quarters, and work was continued with but 
little delav. 

For the Pittsburg, Shawmut and Northern Railroad 

In February, 1907, the thirty-thousandth locomotive was 
completed. This engine was of the Santa Fe type, having 
single-expansion cylinders and a smokebox superheater. It 


was built for the Pittsburg, Shawmut and Northern Railroad 
Company, and is illustrated on the previous page. 

In May and June, 1907, twenty balanced compound loco- 
motives of the ten-wheeled type were completed for the Paris- 
Orleans Railway of France. The compound features were 
arranged on the deGlehn system, and the engines were built 
throughout to drawings and specifications furnished by the rail- 
way company. All measurements were made on the metric 
system, this being the first instance in the experience of the 
Works where metric standards were used exclusively in the con- 

For tht Paris-Orleans Railway of France 

struction of a locomotive. An illustration of one of these engines 
is presented herewith. 

At the Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition, held at Nor- 
folk, Va., in 1907, the Works exhibited five steam locomotives, 
three Baldwin-Westinghouse electric locomotives, and three 
electric trucks. 

During this same year (1907), twenty Consolidation type 
locomotives and two inspection cars were built for the South 
Manchurian Railways. All these locomotives were of standard 

The financial depression, which began during the fall of 1907, 
resulted in a greatly decreased demand for railway supplies of all 
kinds, and the year 1908 witnessed the completion of only six 
hundred and seventeen locomotives, of which one hundred and 
seventy-four were exported. Among the latter may be mentioned 
a Mallet articulated compound locomotive of the 2-6-6-2 type, 
which was built for plantation service in San Domingo. This 
locomotive developed a tractive force of ten thousand five hun- 


dred pounds, which was remarkable in consideration of the fact 
that it was of only two feet six inches gauge, and was suitable for 
use on twenty-five pound rails. 

Mr. William P. Henszey, who had been identified with the 
Works since March 7, 1859, and a member of the firm since 1870, 
died on March 23, 1909. Mr. Henszey had had an unusually 


wide experience in all branches of locomotive engineering, and 
even after his retirement as Chief Mechanical Engineer, he spent 
much time in the draughting room at the Works, and his advice 
was constantly sought. He was largely responsible for the 
standardization of locomotive details and for the perfecting of 
a system of manufacture, whereby like parts of engines of the 
same class were made interchangeable. Many successful loco- 
motives of unusual types, which were built to meet difficult 
service requirements, were the direct result of his ingenuity and 
skill as a designer. 

At the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition held at Seattle, 
Washington, in 1909, two locomotives were exhibited: a Mallet 


articulated compound for the Great Northern Railway, and a 
balanced compound Atlantic type for the Spokane, Portland 
and Seattle Railway. 

During this year, an important change in organization was 
effected. On July 1, 1909, the partnership of Burnham, Williams 
& Co. was dissolved, and a stock company under the name of 


Baldwin Locomotive Works was incorporated under the laws of 

the State of Pennsylvania with the following officers: 
John H. Converse, President 
Alba B. Johnson, Vice-President and Treasurer 
William L. Austin, Vice-President and Engineer 
Samuel M. Vauclain, General Superintendent 
William deKrafft, Secretary and Assistant Treasurer 
The above officers constituted the Board of Directors. 
The great growth of the business and its need for a larger 

working capital, led to the issue on April 1, 1910, of ten million 

dollars first mortgage five per cent, bonds. 


John H. Converse, who had been connected with the Works 
since 1870 and a partner since 1873, died at his home in Philadel- 
phia on May 3, 1910. Throughout the forty years of his con- 
nection with the Works, whilst Mr. Converse was occupied pri- 
marily with the general financial and commercial administration 
of the business, he was also deeply interested in every improve- 
ment in locomotive engineering. He took an active part in 
civic, philanthropic and religious interests. He was succeeded 
as President of the Company by William L. Austin. 

On July 1, 1911, the entire property owned by Baldwin 
Locomotive Works was sold to a new corporation known as the 
Philadelphia Locomotive Works. This was immediately re- 
organized as The Baldwin Locomotive Works. This is a public 
joint stock company, organized under the laws of Pennsylvania, 
and capitalized subject to the mortgage bonds above mentioned 
at 840,000,000 ($20,000,000 cumulative preferred stock and 
820,000,000 common stock). The stock is listed on the Phila- 
delphia and New York Exchanges. 

The first Board of Directors of the new company was com- 
posed as follows: 

William L. Austin, Chairman; Roland L. Taylor, Alba B. 
Johnson, Samuel MacRoberts, Samuel M. Vauclain, Charles D. 
Norton, Edward T. Stotesbury, Otis H. Cutler, Edmund C. Con- 
verse, Francis M. Weld, T. deWitt Cuyler, William Burnham. 

The officers of the new company were as follows: 
William L. Austin, Chairman of the Board 
Alba B. Johnson, President 
Samuel M. Vauclain, Vice President 
William deKrafft, Secretary and Treasurer 

In 1910, the first Baldwin internal combustion locomotives, 
built in accordance with patents granted to A. H. Ehle, were 
constructed ; and thereafter these machines assumed a permanent 
place among the products of the Works. These locomotives are 
distinctive, principally in that they employ no chains whatever; 
the final drive being through specially designed side-rods. This 
allows freedom of the driving-wheels and spring suspension of 
all the principal parts, including the motor, frames and trans- 
mission. There are no sliding gears in the -transmission, the 


different gear ratios being obtained by the engagement of positive 
jaw clutches; while the gears remain constantly in mesh. These 
locomotives are specially suitable for industrial, contractors' 
and light switching service. They were first built in four standard 
sizes, weighing respectively three and one-half, five, seven and 
nine tons. Subsequently a larger size, weighing twenty-three 
tons, and suitable for standard gauge only, was added. In 1919, 
the designs were revised to include five sizes, weighing from five 
to twenty-five tons. 

An illustration of a Baldwin internal combustion locomotive 
is presented on page 120. 

In 1911, the Board of Directors authorized the purchase of a 
tract of three hundred and seventy acres at East Chicago, Indiana. 
Plans were subsequently developed for the construction of works 
for the manufacture of tires and wheels, as part of the business 
of the Standard Steel Works Co., and for the building of locomo- 
tives, as part of the business of The Baldwin Locomotive Works. 
Up to 1919, however, these shops had not been constructed. 

The subject of superheating was receiving much attention 
at this time, and a large number of superheaters were applied 
to locomotives built during 1911 and 1912. In the majority 

For the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway 

of cases superheaters of the fire-tube type were used, in accordance 
with patents controlled by the Locomotive Superheater Co. 
The Vauclain type of smokebox superheater, originally designed 
in 1905, was also used to some extent, but service tests firmly 
established the economies due to high superheat, and the use of 
the fire-tube superheater, on large locomotives, is now practically 


universal. Superheaters in conjunction with compound cylinders 
are employed on Mallet locomotives; and they have also been 
used, to a limited extent, on balanced compound locomotives 
built for the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. An illustration of a 
Pacific type locomotive, so equipped, is shown on the previous page. 

The successful introduction of the superheater in American 
locomotive practice, was followed by the construction of locomo- 
tives for all classes of service, of materially greater capacity 
than those previously built. This increase in capacity was ac- 
companied by the extensive use of such labor-saving devices as 
mechanical stokers, coal pushers on tenders, and power operated 
fire-doors and grate shakers. In fact, without the use of these 
devices it would be difficult to operate, at full capacity, the 
largest locomotives now in service. 

Reference has been made to a design of heavy freight 
locomotive known as the Mikado, which has four pairs of coupled 
driving-wheels with a two-wheeled leading and two-wheeled 
trailing truck. Since 1909, this type has come into extensive 
use on American railroads, and, because of its increased steaming 
capacity, has largely replaced the Consolidation type for main- 

For the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad 

line service. A development of the Mikado type is found in the 
Santa Fe, with five pairs of coupled driving-wheels. Locomotives 
of the Santa Fe type, as has been mentioned, were built for the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. in 1903; but it was about 
ten years later before this type began to be used, to any consider- 
able extent, on other roads. In the spring of 1912, the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy R. R. placed in service five locomotives of 


the Santa Fe type, one of which is illustrated on page 107. These 
locomotives had cylinders thirty inches in diameter by thirty- 
two inches stroke, and driving-wheels sixty inches in diameter. 
They weighed, in working order, three hundred and seventy-eight 
thousand seven hundred pounds, of which three hundred and one 
thousand eight hundred pounds were carried on the driving- 
wheels. These locomotives were followed by a large number of 
others of similar type, which were built not only for the Bur- 
lington System, but also for various other roads throughout 
the country. 

In 1910, a Mikado type locomotive, designed to burn lignite 
fuel, was built for the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Com- 
pany. This locomotive was constructed in accordance with 
specifications prepared by Mr. J. F. Graham, Superintendent of 
Motive Power, and the design was based on that of the standard 
Consolidation type locomotives for the Associated Lines. The 
new Mikado had cylinders twenty-three and three-quarters 
inches in diameter by thirty inches stroke, and driving-wheels 
fifty-seven inches in diameter; and it weighed in working order, 
exclusive of tender, two-hundred and sixty-three thousand 
pounds. This locomotive proved highly successful, and the 
Mikado type locomotives subsequently built for the Union and 
Southern Pacific Systems and their associated lines, were directly 
based upon it. 

For the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Co. 

A large number of Mallet locomotives were built during 
this period, for pushing and heavy road service on steep grades. 
Among the most interesting of these were two groups of locomo- 
tives, one of the 2-8-8-2 type and the other of the 2-6-6-2 type, 



constructed for the Southern Pacific Co. and used in freight and 
passenger service respectively. In order to give the engine- 
men a better view when running through tunnels and snow-sheds, 
these locomotives were operated with the cab end leading, the 

For the Southern Pacific Co. 

tender being coupled to the smoke-box end. As oil was used 
for fuel, this arrangement was entirely practicable. An illus- 
tration of one of the freight locomotives is presented herewith. 
In the years 1910 and 1911, six locomotives of the 2-6-6-2 
type, which were included in a large number built for the Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry., were fitted with articulated boilers. 
The front boiler section, instead of being supported on sliding 
bearings, was rigidly mounted on the frames, and was attached 

For the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway 

to the rear boUer section by a flexible connection. The illustra- 
tion shows one of these locomotives, in which the flexible con- 
nection consisted of a series of rings, fastened together to form 
a bellows-shaped structure. This arrangement was built in 
accordance with patents granted to Samuel M. Vauclain. 



An interesting group of eighteen Mallet locomotives was 
completed in 1912 for the Imperial Government Rys. of Japan. 
These locomotives were of the 0-6-6-0 type, and had a gauge of 
three feet six inches. They were equipped with superheaters, 

For the Imperial Government Railways of Japan 

and weighed, exclusive of tenders, one hundred and forty-two 
thousand six hundred and fifty pounds each. The accompany- 
ing illustration shows the design. 

Locomotive number forty thousand was completed in June, 
1913. It was of the Pacific (4-6-2) type, and was built for the 
Pennsylvania Lines West of Pittsburgh, to drawings and speci- 
fications furnished by the Railway Company. Since 1903, 
Pacific type locomotives have been built to a constantly in- 
creasing extent, for heavy passenger service; and locomotive 

For the Pennsylvania Lines. Baldwin Locomotive No. 40,000 

number forty thousand was, at the time of its construction, 
among the largest in service. This locomotive had cylinders 
measuring twenty-six by twenty-six inches, and driving wheels 
eighty inches in diameter; and it weighed, in working order, 
three hundred and two thousand pounds. It was equipped with 


a superheater and was fired by a mechanical stoker of the 
Crawford under-feed type. An illustration of the locomotive is 
presented on page 110. 

In September, 1913, the Erie Railroad ordered a locomotive 
of the triple articulated type, which was designed and built 
in accordance with patents granted to George R. Henderson, who 
at that time was Consulting Engineer of The Baldwin Locomo- 
tive Works. This locomotive has the 2-8-8-8-2 wheel arrange- 
ment, and is practically a Mallet, with a steam driven tender. In 
this way, a tractive force equal to that of three Consolidation 
or Mikado type locomotives can be developed in a single unit. 
The triple locomotive has six cylinders, all of which are of the 
same size and cast from the same pattern. The two cylinders 
which drive the middle group of wheels receive superheated 
steam direct from the boiler and thus act as the high pressure 
cylinders; and they exhaust into the front and rear cylinders, 
which act as the low pressure. The exhaust from the front 
cylinders is discharged up the stack to create a draught for 
the fire, while that from the rear cylinders, after passing through 
a feed-water heater, escapes up a pipe at the rear of the tank. 
Pumps are used to force the heated feed-water into the boiler. 

The first locomotive of this type was completed in April, 
1914, and was placed in pushing service on a heavy grade near 
Susquehanna, Penna. It was named "Matt H. Shay," after the 

For the Erie R. R. 

oldest living engineer then in the service of the Erie. The 
cylinders of this locomotive are thirty-six inches in diameter by 
thirty-two inches stroke, and the driving-wheels are sixty-three 
inches in diameter. The total weight of the locomotive in working 
order is eight hundred and fifty-three thousand pounds, and 



the maximum tractive force exerted is one hundred and sixty 
thousand pounds. On a test run to determine its hauling capacity 
on practically level track, the "Matt H. Shay" has hauled a train 
of two hundred and fifty loaded cars having a length of one and 
six-tenths miles and weighing seventeen thousand nine hundred 
and twelve tons. This load was hauled up a maximum grade of 
0.09 per cent., combined with a curve of five degrees. 

After this locomotive had been fully tried out, two more 
of similar dimensions were built for the Erie R. R. and completed 
in 1916. Another of the same general type was built for the 
Virginian Railway. 

While these developments were taking place in the field 
of steam locomotive engineering, Baldwin-Westinghouse electric 
locomotives were becoming increasingly prominent in the prod- 
uct of the Works. Among these locomotives may be men- 
tioned five, which were built in 1910 for service in the Hoosac 
Tunnel, Mass., on the line of the Boston & Maine R. R. This 
tunnel is four and three-quarters miles long, and its operation 
with steam locomotives had become difficult because of the ac- 
cumulation of smoke and gas, which made it impossible to 
fully utilize the track capacity of the tunnel. The results 

For the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad 


obtained with electric traction have been most satisfactory, 
and the capacity of the tunnel has been greatly increased. 

Up to the close of 1912, one hundred Baldwin-Westinghouse 
single-phase locomotives had been built for the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford R. R. for service on the electrified section 
of the line between New York and Stamford, Conn. The electri- 
fication was subsequently extended to New Haven. The electric 
locomotives built for this road are of various types, and are used 
in passenger, freight and switching service. The illustration 
on page 112 represents ten large New Haven electric locomo- 
tives of the articulated type, ready for shipment from The 
Baldwin Locomotive Works to Pittsburgh, to receive their 
electrical equipment at the Westinghouse plant. 

Another interesting group of electric locomotives were 
those built for the Norfolk & Western Ry. for service between 
Bluefield and East Vivian, West Virginia, a distance of thirty 
miles. This line handles a heavy coal traffic, and its capacity, 
under steam operation, was limited by the number of trains 
which could be moved through Elkhorn Tunnel, where the line 
is single tracked. The tunnel has a length of thirty-one hundred 
feet, and is approached from the West by a two per cent, grade, 
and from the East by a grade of two and thirty-six-hundredths 
per cent. When the road was electrified, twenty steam locomo- 
tives of the Mallet type were replaced by twelve electric locomo- 
tives, and the capacity of the line was greatly increased because 
of the higher speed at which the trains could be handled. Each 
electric locomotive consists of two units having a combined 
weight of two hundred and seventy tons, each unit being of the 
2-4-4-2 type. Two of these locomotives handle a train weighing 
thirty-two hundred and fifty tons through the tunnel in three 
minutes; while with steam operation, on account of slow speeds 
and frequent stalling, it was necessary to allow twenty minutes 
for three Mallet locomotives to take a train through the tunnel. 

The development of electric mine and industrial locomo- 
tives, during this period, was characterized by refinement in 
general design and detailed construction. These Works were 
pioneers in developing and standardizing plate steel and cast 
steel bar frames for mine locomotives. The accompanying 



With Cast Steel Bar Frames 

illustration shows one 
of these locomotives, 
equipped with a cast 
steel frame of the 
bar type. Greater 
strength and accessi- 
bility were secured 
with this construc- 
tion, and also, in 
many cases, lighter 
mechanical parts, 

thus allowing the use of heavier and more powerful electrical 
equipment for a given total weight of locomotive. 

During the past few years a large number of storage battery- 
locomotives have been built for mine and industrial service. 
The Edison storage battery, because of its light weight and dur- 
ability, has proved particularly well suited for this kind of work. 

The completion at Eddystone, in 1912, of a large erecting 
shop, provided additional erecting facilities much needed to 
relieve congestion at the Philadelphia plant. This shop was 
specially designed for the construction of locomotives of the 
largest size; it covers over seven and one-half acres of ground, 



and has over-all dimensions of four hundred and eighty by eight 
hundred and eighty feet. The building has a steel frame-work, 
with concrete foundations and side walls of hollow tile. The 
roof is laid with reinforced cement tile and the floor is of wooden 
blocks laid on concrete. An illustration of this shop is presented 
on the preceding page. 

George Burnham, Sr., who entered the Works in 1836, died 
at his home in West Philadelphia on December 10, 1912, in the 
ninety-sixth year of his age. Mr. Burnham had been a member 
of the firm since 1867. 

Since the financial panic of 1907, the volume of business 
handled by the Works had been exceedingly fluctuating; and 
when the European war broke out in August, 1914, the Baldwin 
Plants were operating at only about one-third of their full 
capacity. The significance of the conflict was at once perceived 
by the officials of The Baldwin Locomotive Works, and the 
manufacturing facilities of the Company were promptly placed 
at the disposal of the Allied Governments. 

The pressing needs for ordnance, ammunition and other 
supplies by France and Great Britain, were such that all efforts 
in these early days of the war were directed towards the develop- 
ment of armament and munitions. In Russia, however, greater 
distances and a desperate shortage of motive power and equip- 
ment necessitated the purchase of locomotives. Mr. S. M. 
Vauclain, then Vice-President of The Baldwin Locomotive 
Works, visited Russia in the fall of 1914 and also early in 1915, 
and was instrumental in securing a large part of this business. 
The first order thus obtained called for thirty Mallet locomotives 
of the 0-6-6-0 type, for the Vologda-Archangel Railway. These 

For the Vologda-Archangel Railway, Russia 



locomotives were of three feet, six inches gauge, and they were 
successfully and rapidly completed and shipped. One of them 
is illustrated on page 115. This order was followed by others, 
placed later by the Russian Government, and covering large 

For the Russian Government 

numbers of heavy Decapod locomotives of five feet gauge, 
gasoline locomotives of seventy-five centimetres (2' 51") gauge, 
gasoline trucks and gasoline tractors. The locomotives are 
illustrated on this page. One hundred of the Decapod loco- 
motives, which could not be delivered in Russia because of the 
Bolshevik revolution, were subsequently purchased by the United 
States Government and so modified that they could be used 
temporarily on the railroads of the United States. 

The gasoline locomotives were intended for trench service, a 
class of work for which they are well fitted, since as they emit no 
smoke they are comparatively inconspicuous. 

For the Russian Government 


The French Government, late in the summer of 1914, sent a 
mission to the United States to make certain purchases. Early 
in November, 1914, the mission received cable instructions from 
France to purchase twenty tank locomotives of a gauge of sixty 
centimetres (!' Us"), which were to be built to American 
designs and shipped as promptly as possible. The Baldwin 
Locomotive Works took this order on November 3rd, and the 
twenty locomotives, boxed and ready for shipment overseas, left 
the Works on November 21st. This was the beginning of a 
series of orders from the French Government which included both 
steam and gasoline locomotives totalling over one thousand in 
number. Among these were two-hundred and eighty locomotives 
of the Pechot type, designed for service on the narrow (sixty 
centimetres) gauge lines in the advanced areas. These locomo- 
tives were built throughout to the metric system of measurement, 
in accordance with designs furnished by the French Government. 
They are carried on two steam driven trucks or bogies, thus 
providing unusual flexibility and excellent tracking and riding 
qualities. The boiler has two fireboxes, placed in the middle 
between the bogies; and there is a separate boiler barrel, smoke- 
box and stack at each end of the locomotive. The total weight 
in working order, with water- tanks and coal-boxes filled, is 
twenty-eight thousand one-hundred pounds. These locomotives 
were built during the years 1915 and 1916. The accompanying 
illustration represents the design. 

The locomotives built for the British Government, for service 
similar to that performed by the Pechot locomotives, were of the 

For the French Government 


ten-wheeled (4-6-0) type with side tanks. A total of four- 
hundred and ninety-five of these were built during the latter 
part of 1916 and the Spring of 1917. The design generally 
followed American practice, as shown in the accompanying 
illustration; and the locomotives weighed, in working order, 
thirty-two thousand five hundred pounds each. 

The British Government also received four hundred and sixty- 
five standard gauge locomotives of various types. Conspicuous 
among these were one hundred and fifty locomotives of the 
Consolidation (2-8-0) type, which were built in 1917. These 
locomotives had cylinders twenty-one inches in diameter by 

For the British Government 

twenty-eight inches stroke, and the weight in working order was 
one hundred and sixty-two thousand five hundred pounds. 

The remainder of the standard gauge locomotives built for the 
British Government were of the 0-4-0, 0-6-0, 2-6-2 and 4-6-0 
types. The last named had separate tenders, while the others 
were tank engines. 

In addition to the locomotives built for strictly military pur- 
poses, large orders for Mikado (2-8-2) type freight locomotives 
were also received, during the war period, from two prominent 
French railways the Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean, and the 
Nord. These locomotives were built throughout to the metric 
system, in accordance with specifications furnished by the pur- 
chasing companies. They use superheated steam and are of the 
balanced compound type, with inside high-pressure cylinders 
driving the second pair of coupled wheels and outside low- 


pressure cylinders driving the third pair. The total weight of 
one of these locomotives, exclusive of tender, is two hundred and 
two thousand pounds, of which the driving-wheels carry one 
hundred and forty-nine thousand four hundred pounds. 

The construction of all of these locomotives for military service 
abroad, together with those ordered by domestic railways, soon 
placed the Works on a full capacity basis. Moreover, during this 
period orders were received from the British and French Govern- 
ments for the machining of a large number of shells, varying in 
calibre from four and seven-tenths inches to twelve inches. These 
shells were manufactured in such of the locomotive shops as were 
available for the purpose, and also in new shops, specially built 
and equipped for this kind of work. The principal additions 
made to the Philadelphia plant were a four-story extension of the 
truck shop, measuring ninety by ninety-seven feet, and an eight- 
story building of re-enforced concrete, measuring ninety-eight 
feet six inches, by three hundred and ninety-six feet. A group of 
large shops one story in height, was also built at the Eddystone 
plant and utilized for the completion of the shell order from the 
French Government. 

With the entrance of the United States into the war, in April, 
1917, all industries manufacturing war supplies of any kind 
received a great stimulus. The presence of the American Army 
in France required the immediate construction of a great amount 
of motive power and rolling stock; and to meet the demand for 
locomotives, The Baldwin Locomotive Works were entrusted 
with what were probably the largest and most urgent orders ever 
placed in the history of locomotive building. The first of these 
orders was placed on July 17, 1917, and called for one hundred 
and fifty locomotives of the Consolidation (2-8-0) type. These 
locomotives, in general design, were similar to the Consolidation 
engines built for the British Government, the principal difference 
being that they were equipped with superheaters, whereas the 
British locomotives used saturated steam. The first of the 
locomotives for the United States Government was completed on 
August 10th, less than a month after the receipt of the order, and 
the last of the one hundred and fifty, on October 1st. These 
"Pershing Engines," as they became known, were subsequently 


For the United States Government. The first "Pershing Locomotive" built 

ordered in large numbers; and when hostilities closed they were 
being shipped from the Works at the rate of three hundred per 

Additional erecting capacity was required in order to handle 
all this work, and a second erecting shop, generally similar to 
that constructed in 1912, was built at Eddystone during the 
winter of 1917-1918. 

Through the initiative of Mr. S. M. Felton, Director of 
Military Railways, and his mechanical aide, Colonel Milliken, 
an interesting method was developed of shipping the Pershing 
locomotives to France, erected complete with the exception of 
the headlight, smokestack and cab. The locomotives and 
tenders were placed in the holds of the vessels on their own 
wheels, and after unloading them at St. Nazaire, France, com- 
paratively little work was required before they were ready for 
service. Much time and trouble were saved in this way. 

In addition to the Pershing locomotives, narrow gauge steam 
locomotives of the 2-6-2 type, and gasoline locomotives of the 

For the United States Government 


five, seven and one-half and twenty-five ton sizes, were also built 
for the United States Government. One of the gasoline loco- 
motives, weighing seven and one-half tons, is illustrated on page 

On September 6, 1917, Mr. S. M. Vauclain was appointed 
Senior Vice-President of The Baldwin Locomotive Works, Mr. 
Grafton Greenough Vice-President in Charge of Sales, and Mr. 
John P. Sykes Vice-President in Charge of Manufacture. 

Mr. Vauclain, as has been mentioned in these pages, had been 
connected with the Works since 1883. The great increase in the 
size and capacity of the plant which occurred during his term of 
service was due, to a large extent, to his untiring energy and to 
his exceptional ability as an organizer and executive. He also 
took an active interest in the development of the locomotive, and 
became recognized the world over as a locomotive expert and 
designer. It is safe to say that the production record made by the 
Works during the period of the war would not have been attained 
had it not been for his courage, energy and ability. 

Mr. Greenough entered the service of the Company on Decem- 
ber 28, 1885, as an employee of the Engineering Department. 
In August, 1899, he was transferred to the Operating Depart- 
ment in the capacity of Assistant Superintendent. At the time 
of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904 he was placed in 
charge of the St. Louis Office, later assuming charge of the sales 
organization in Philadelphia as General Sales Manager. 

Mr. Sykes was apprenticed to The Baldwin Locomotive Works, 
entering service in 1879. He served in the capacities of Con- 
tractor, Assistant Foreman and General Foreman until 1905 
when he was appointed Superintendent of the (then new) 
Eddystone Shops. In 1907 he left the parent company to become 
General Superintendent of the Standard Steel Works Company 
at Burnham, Pa., later returning to The Baldwin Locomotive 
Works as Assistant General Superintendent. In July, 1911, he 
was appointed General Superintendent, which position he held 
until his selection as Vice-President in Charge of Manufacture. 

One of the most notable achievements of The Baldwin Loco- 
motive Works during the war, was the building of a group of 
railway gun mounts for the United States Navy. These mounts 


carried fourteen-inch naval guns, which were available for shore 
service; and the original idea was to use them against a number 
of long-range German guns which were mounted near Ostend and 
firing into Dunkirk. The designs for the mounts were prepared 
at the Naval Gun Factory, Washington, under the direction of 
Captain A. L. Willard, Superintendent; Commander Harvey 
Delano, U. S. N., and George A. Chadwick, Chief Draftsman. 
When the designs were submitted to the bidders on January 25, 
1918, Mr. S. M. Vauclain, who was then Chairman of the Muni- 
tions Committee of the War Industries Board, agreed that The 
Baldwin Locomotive Works would build the mounts, with the 
assistance of the American Bridge Company, in from one 
hundred to one hundred and twenty days. Five mounts were 
thereupon ordered; the first one, scheduled for delivery on May 
15, 1918, was completed on April 25, while the last, which was 
scheduled for June 15, was completed May 25. Considering the 
fact that the design was new throughout, that there was a 
shortage of labor, and that many serious obstacles had to be 
overcome, this was an exceptionally creditable piece of work. 


Each of these mounts is carried on twenty-four wheels, 
grouped in four trucks of six wheels each. The maximum firing 
elevation of the guns is forty-three degrees; but when firing at 
angles of fifteen degrees and upward, a structural steel foundation, 
surrounding a pit, is necessary, for the purpose of absorbing a 
portion of the shock and providing room for the recoil of the 


gun. These foundations were also supplied by The Baldwin 
Locomotive Works. 

By the time the mounts were completed, conditions in Europe 
had changed to such an extent that it was impossible to send 
them to the Belgian Coast as first intended; hence they were 
shipped to the West Front, and were in service several weeks 
prior to the signing of the armistice. In all, the five batteries 
were fired seven hundred and eighty-two times on twenty-five 
different days, at ranges which averaged from thirty thousand to 
forty thousand yards; and while it was not possible, in the 
majority of cases, to make observations, it is known that severe 
damage was done. 

These first five mounts were followed by six others, of similar 
construction; and after the signing of the armistice, the. Works 
completed two additional mounts of an improved type, so 
designed that the gun can be fired at all angles without trans- 
ferring the weight to a separate foundation. The new mounts 
were given thorough tests and proved highly satisfactory. 

The Works also built thirty-eight caterpillar mounts, designed 
to carry seven-inch rifles. These were also constructed for the 
Navy, having been designed at the Naval Gun Factory. This 
type of mount has broad caterpillar treads, and can be run over 
rough roads and soft soil. In the field, these mounts are hauled 
about by tractors of one hundred and twenty horsepower. 

In addition to building complete mounts, The Baldwin Loco- 
motive Works constructed several styles of railway trucks for 
gun and howitzer mounts. At the time hostilities closed, prep- 
arations were being made for the manufacture, on a large scale, 
of heavy tanks equipped with Liberty motors. These were 
intended to destroy the wire defenses and machine gun nests put 
up by the Germans in their retreat. After the signing of the 
armistice, however, the order for these tanks was cancelled. 

The war activities of The Baldwin Locomotive Works also 
included the construction of two large plants on their property at 
Eddystone for the manufacture of rifles and ammunition, and 
accomplishments in this connection constitute a series of achieve- 
ments worthy of record. 

On April 30, 1915, the British Government placed a contract 


with the Remington Arms Company of Delaware for one million 
five hundred thousand rifles to be manufactured in one of the 
plants mentioned above, under the general direction of Mr. S. M. 
Vauclain. The work of constructing, equipping and organizing 
this enormous plant was fully accomplished, and production 
established by December 31, 1915, continuing until the close of 

Mr. Charles H. Schlacks was engaged as General Manager on 
May 1, 1915, and to him great credit is due for the completion of 
the organization and the remarkable manufacturing results 

The main building of the Rifle Plant covered fourteen acres of 
ground, and had a length of ten hundred and forty feet and a 
maximum width of eight hundred and sixteen feet. Great 
difficulty was experienced in obtaining delivery of equipment and 
machinery in time to meet the terms of the British contract, and 
some idea of the extent of the installation may be had from the 
fact that ten thousand machines, forty thousand two hundred 
feet of shafting, and four hundred and twenty-four thousand feet 
of belting were required. 

The first British contract, mentioned above, was followed by 
another, signed August 2, 1915, and calling for five hundred 
thousand rifles, necessitated additional equipment. Because of 
the complexity of rifle manufacture, it was impossible to obtain 
experienced workmen; hence it was some time after the com- 
pletion of the Plant before it could be operated at capacity. In 
consequence, an extension of time was granted for the com- 
pletion of these contracts. 

Soon after the United States entered the war, April 6, 1917, and 
in view of its prospective rifle requirements, cancellation of the 
British contracts, after the completion of six hundred thousand 
rifles, was arranged. Later, the British owned machinery and 
equipment passed by agreement to the United States Government 
who continued the British arrangement with the Remington 
Arms Company for its operation in the manufacture of rifles for 
the United States Army. 

The first contract for rifles for the United States Government 
was signed on July 12, 1917; and during the twelve months 







beginning September, 1917, one million rifles were completed, 
the greatest known achievement in rifle production. These rifles 
differed slightly from those manufactured for the British Govern- 
ment, in that they fired a .300 calibre rimless cartridge; whereas 
the British rifle, which was an Enfield (model of 1914) fired a 
.303 calibre rim cartridge. 

On January 2, 1918, the Remington Arms Company of Dela- 
ware was absorbed by the Midvale Steel and Ordnance Company 
(Eddystone Rifle Plant). The latter company operated the plant 
until after the close of the war. 

The completion of rifle number one million for the United 
States Government was celebrated by a mass meeting held on 
September 23, 1918. The meeting was attended by a number of 
notable army, navy and industrial officials, and by more than 
fourteen thousand employees of the plant. 

Operations at the plant ceased on January 11, 1919, at which 
time nearly three hundred thousand rifles were in process of 
manufacture. The Government then leased the premises for a 
storage plant. 

The total number of rifles manufactured in this plant was one 
million nine hundred and fifty-nine thousand nine hundred and 
fifty-four, in addition to spare parts equivalent to two hundred 
thousand rifles. The greatest production exceeded six thousand 
rifles per day, and the maximum number of employees was 
fifteen thousand two hundred and ninety-four. When it is 
remembered that nearly two-thirds of all the rifles used in combat 
by the American Army in France were manufactured at Eddy- 
stone, the value of the work done can, to some extent, be appre- 
ciated ; and the achievement was the more remarkable in view of 
the exceptional difficulties encountered in equipping the plant 
and securing labor and material. 

The second plant referred to was built primarily for the 
production of Russian ammunition ordered by the British 
Government. Early in 1915, Messrs. J. P. Morgan and Company, 
representing His Britannic Majesty's Government, were re- 
quested to negotiate with American manufacturers for the pro- 
duction of three-inch Russian shrapnel, and Mr. S. M. Vauclain 
made a tentative agreement for the manufacture of two million 


five hundred thousand of such shells. As the Charter of The 
Baldwin Locomotive Works did not permit it to handle explo- 
sives, the Eddystone Ammunition Corporation was formed on 
June 10, 1915, for the purpose of carrying out the contract. 

The new Company was organized with S. M. Vauclain as 
Managing Director, Andrew Fletcher as President, Captain 
Walter M. Wilhelm as Vice-President and General Manager, and 
John P. Sykes as Consulting Manager. The stock of the Com- 
pany was held and owned outside of The Baldwin Locomotive 
Works because of provisions in the Charter to which previous 
reference has been made. 

A contract, calling for two million five hundred thousand 
rounds of three-inch Russian artillery ammunition with shrapnel 
shells, was executed on July 23, 1915, for completion by December 
31, 1916. Work was immediately started on the construction of 
the plant, which was located along the river front on what was 
originally swamp lands. The main buildings consisted of two 
shops each four hundred and fifty by seven hundred and fifty 
feet, connected to an office building fifty by four hundred and 
fifty feet, which was placed between them. These buildings were 
of steel and tile construction, two stories high ; the upper floors of 
the shop buildings being removable, so that cranes could be sub- 
sequently installed for after-war production. A large number of 
smaller structures, which were used for powder loading buildings, 
storehouses, magazines, etc., were also erected. The office build- 
ing was completed and occupied November first. 

In connection with this plant, a modern wharf was built 
along the Delaware River front. This wharf was equipped with 
a fifty-ton gantry crane, and had a minimum depth of thirty feet 
of water alongside, so that large cargo steamers could dock and 

Some difficulty was experienced in equipping the plant, and 
much of the heavy machinery was manufactured by The Baldwin 
Locomotive Works since it could not be obtained elsewhere. In 
addition to this, The Baldwin Locomotive Works installed the 
heat-treating plant and supervised its operation. 

Additional time was allowed on the contracts, and the order 
was finally completed on August 10, 1917. 


In connection with this work the Eddystone Ammunition 
Corporation secured the contract for proving Russian ammunition 
of their own and other makes, and a proving ground for this 
purpose was established at Lakehurst, New Jersey, with Captain 
C. K. Rockwell in charge, who distinguished himself in over- 
coming what appeared to be insurmountable difficulties in 
record time. 

By this arrangement the Eddystone Ammunition Corpora- 
tion were required to test ammunition for other manufacturers, 
and lots representing some seven million six hundred thousand of 
three-inch Russian shrapnel and high explosive shells with their 
component parts were tested. 

The work done at the proving ground was of the greatest 
value, and was an unqualified success. The last shot was fired 
December 24, 1917. 

The work done in the plant of the Eddystone Ammunition 
Corporation was necessarily of a dangerous character, and while 
every precaution was taken to safe-guard the workers, there was 
one serious disaster. On April 10, 1917, four days after the United 
States declared war on Germany, an explosion occurred in "F" 
building, a loading shop isolated from the main building on 
account of the large amount of powder used. The building was 
completely demolished, and one hundred and twenty-eight 
people were killed, while a large number of others were injured. 
Heroic work was done at the rescue, both by employees and also by 
outsiders who happened to be in the vicinity and who could reach 
the spot. The cause of the explosion has never been determined. 

In May, 1917, the United States Government requested the 
Eddystone Ammunition Corporation to submit a proposition 
covering the manufacture of a large amount of three-inch shrap- 
nel. Because of British and Russian interests represented, 
however, the proposed program could not be accepted by the 
Directors of the Corporation. After some negotiation, the United 
States Government agreed to purchase the machinery and equip- 
ment of the Eddystone Ammunition Corporation; and The 
Baldwin Locomotive Works, the owners of the buildings, organ- 
ized a subsidiary company to manufacture the shrapnel. This 
subsidiary was organized on September 27, 1917, as the Eddy- 


stone Munitions Company. 

The officers of the Company were as follows : 

Charles H. Schlacks, Chairman of the Board. 

James McNaughton, President. 

Captain Walter M. Wilhelm, Vice-President. 

J. L. Tate, Secretary and Treasurer. 

W. C. Stagg, Assistant Secretary and Treasurer. 

For nearly a year previous to the organization of the Eddy- 
stone Munitions Company, Mr. McNaughton had been directing 
the affairs of the Eddystone Ammunition Corporation as personal 
representative of Mr. Vauclain. He was thus peculiarly well 
qualified to assume the presidency of the new Company. On 
October 1, 1917, he was also appointed Consulting Vice-President 
of The Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The original order, placed by the United States Government, 
called for seven hundred and fifty thousand complete rounds of 
three-inch shrapnel. After the work had been started, the size 
of the shells was changed to seventy-five millimetres, which 
materially retarded delivery. Difficulty was experienced in 
maintaining the output of these shells, on account of failure to 
receive the component parts promptly. 

On April 1, 1918, a contract was signed for one million 
seventy-five millimetre high explosive shells. The cartridge case 
shop, in the meantime, was manufacturing cartridge cases of high 
quality at the rate of sixty thousand per week. In addition there 
were loaded, assembled and packed over one million six hundred 
thousand rounds of seventy-five millimetre shrapnel, the com- 
ponent parts of which were furnished by the Government. 

During the early months of 1918 the Government also 
ordered large quantities of various kinds of fuses, boosters and 
adapters, necessitating a number of changes in the shop lay-out 
and the installation of new machinery. This was accomplished, 
however, in an incredibly short space of time. 

In addition to the work for the United States Government, a 
contract was made with the British Government for five hundred 
thousand six-inch high explosive shells. The armistice was 
signed before this contract was finished, but four hundred and 
seventy-five thousand of the shells were actually completed, the 


maximum production reaching four thousand two hundred per 

The epidemic of influenza, which swept the country early in 
the fall of 1918, seriously affected the work of the Company on 
account of the great amount of illness among the employees. 
Among the first to succumb was Captain Walter M. Wilhelm, 
Vice-President, who died on October third. This was a severe 
loss, as owing to his wide experience in the manufacture of 
.munitions, his services were of exceptional value. 

The maximum number of employees of the Eddystone 
Munitions Company was six thousand five hundred and eighty- 
three, and the average number four thousand two hundred and 
thirteen. The labor situation presented many problems, due to 
the heavy labor turn-over and the difficulty of securing skilled 
workers. Excellent wages, backed by a bonus system and con- 
siderate, tactful management, did much to hold employees who 
would otherwise have sought employment elsewhere. 

After the signing of the armistice, on November 11, 1918, 
production rapidly slackened, and on December 31st of that year 
manufacturing ceased. The machinery and equipment were 
sold, and the buildings turned over to The Baldwin Locomotive 
Works, to be subsequently re-equipped as locomotive shops. 

An idea of the extent of the war activities of The Baldwin 
Locomotive Works and its associated companies, may be obtained 
from the following summary of material supplied to the Allied 
Nations and the United States: 

Locomotives built 5551 

Gun Mounts (seven and fourteen-inch) 51 

Foundations for fourteen-inch mounts 20 

Trucks for gun and howitzer mounts 5 sets 

Total number of shells (including those manu- 
factured by Eddystone Ammunition Cor- 
poration and Eddystone Munitions Com- 
pany) 6,565,355 

Cartridge cases 1,863,900 

Miscellaneous ammunition items 1,905,213 

The aggregate value of the war contracts executed and 


delivered by The Baldwin Locomotive Works, the Standard Steel 
Works Company, the Eddystone Ammunition Corporation, and 
the Eddystone Munitions Company, was approximately 

In connection with the war activities of The Baldwin Loco- 
motive Works, it should be recorded, as a matter of historical 
interest, that among those lost on board the Cunard steamer 
"Lusitania," when that vessel was torpedoed by a German 
submarine on May 7, 1915, were W. Sterling Hodges and his 
family. Mr. Hodges, at the time, was en route for Paris, where 
he was to act as one of the representatives of The Baldwin 
Locomotive Works. 

While the greater part of the product of the Works, during 
the war, was for military purposes, a record should also be made 
of a number of interesting locomotives for railway service. At 
the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, held in San Fran- 
cisco during 1915, an exhibit of five steam locomotives was 
presented as follows: 

A Mikado type locomotive for the Southern Pacific Co.; 

A locomotive of similar construction for the San Pedro, 
Los Angeles and Salt Lake R. R. ; 

A Pacific type locomotive for the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe Ry. ; 

A Santa Fe type locomotive for the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy R. R., and a stock locomotive of the Mikado type designed 
for logging service. Two electric trucks were also exhibited; 
and an exhibit, made by the McCloud River R. R., included a 
Baldwin locomotive built for that line. The Works received the 
Grand Prize for locomotives and electric trucks. 

For the Jamaica Government Railways 


In July, 1916, the first locomotives of the Mountain (4-8-2) 
type to be built by The Baldwin Locomotive Works, were 
completed. They were of standard gauge, for the Jamaica 
Government Rys. The illustration on page 131 shows the 
general design. This type of locomotive was subsequently 
built in considerable numbers, for heavy passenger service in the 
United States. 

The Government assumed control of all the trunk line railways 
of the United States, December 28, 1917, at a time when the 
various lines were taxed to their capacity. The operation of the 
railways was intrusted to the United States Railroad Administra- 
tion, which body immediately assumed the right to centralize 
the purchases of all railroad equipment, including locomotives. 
The Director General of the Railroad Administration immediately 
appointed a committee to standardize the specifications for 
locomotives and in accordance with his ruling, that committee 
and a committee of railway officials collaborated with the repre- 
sentatives of the locomotive builders in preparing twelve speci- 
fications and designs of locomotives comprising twelve sizes of 
engines divided among eight types. The locomotive builders 
sharing in this work were The Baldwin Locomotive Works, the 
American Locomotive Company and the Lima Locomotive 
Works, Incorporated. The first conference was held at the 
office of The Baldwin Locomotive Works, March 13, 14 and 15, 
1918, and subsequent meetings were held in the Interstate Com- 
merce Building, Washington, with the result that an order for 
standard locomotives was placed and divided among the three 
builders April 30, 1918, and subsequent orders were placed with 
the last two companies named. Some locomotives of each of the 
twelve standard specifications were built by both The Baldwin 
Locomotive Works and the American Locomotive Company, 
whereas the activities of the Lima Locomotive Works were con- 
fined to two types of engines. 

The standard locomotives were distributed to the various 
railroads of the country as directed by the Railroad Administra- 
tion, and it will be interesting to note if the lower costs of loco- 
motives made possible through standardization can overcome, in 
the mind of the railroad world, the advantages which may be 



obtained through the use of locomotives particularly designed 
and adapted to the individual service of the railroads on which 
they operate. 

Heavy Mikado Type 

Only one order for standard locomotives was placed with these 
Works, because the capacity of the plant was practically ab- 
sorbed by the Government's demand for Military Railway 
locomotives and for military and naval equipment. 

Locomotive Number 50,000 was completed in September, 
1918. This engine is of the Mallet type, with 2-8-8-2 wheel 
arrangement, and is one of a group of twelve, specially designed 
for service on the Appalachia Division of the Southern Ry. 
System. These locomotives had been ordered before the standard- 
ization program was decided upon. Locomotive number 50,000 

For the Southern Railway. Baldwin Locomotive No. 50.000 

is equipped with a superheater and mechanical stoker, and weighs, 
in working order, four hundred and twenty-seven thousand 
pounds, exclusive of tender. The accompanying illustration 
represents the design. 

When the armistice was signed and it became necessary to 
turn attention to the problems of peace, it was found that the 
removal of war business, however gradually accomplished, would 
reveal a lack of balance in the general organization of the Works. 


As a consequence of this business being obtained direct from the 
United States and Allied Governments, the Commercial and 
Financial Departments remained undeveloped, while the In- 
dustrial Department had been enormously increased to take care 
of the emergencies of war. This lack of balance was particularly 
noticeable in the Sales Department, as war work had been 
obtained with practically no solicitation. 

In adjusting to meet the new conditions, it was obviously 
necessary to expand the Commercial Organization so as to be 
able to obtain the business necessary for greatly enlarged shops 
and manufacturing facilities. The opportunity for sales was 
especially attractive in foreign countries where Germany, 
formerly the most active competitor, had lost ground. 

In order to inaugurate a more vigorous selling campaign, the 
Sales Department, in March, 1919, was reorganized, and two 
distinct departments were created a Domestic Sales Depart- 
ment and a Foreign Sales Department. The long established 
Extra Work Department, with its record of past successes, was 
abolished; and the work formerly committed to its care was 
divided between the two Sales Departments. Mr. Grafton 
Greenough, formerly Vice-President in Charge of Sales, was made 
Vice-President in Charge of Domestic Sales. Mr. Francois de St. 
Phalle, who had been connected with the Works since 1903, and 
who during the war had acted as Manager of Munitions, was 
appointed Vice-President in Charge of Foreign Sales. Both 
departments were organized on the basis of zone management, 
with sections especially devoted to sales in certain determined 
districts and countries. Twelve direct Baldwin offices were 
opened in foreign countries, and men of the highest capacity 
selected and equipped to act as Baldwin Managers in those 

On May 19, 1919, Mr. Alba B. Johnson resigned from the 
presidency. Mr. Johnson first entered the service of the Works 
as junior clerk on May 14, 1877. He left the following year to 
enter the employment of the Edge Moor Iron Works of Wilming- 
ton, Delaware, returning to The Baldwin Locomotive Works on 
September 1, 1879. From that time until his resignation, he 
served the Works continuously; first as assistant to Mr. John H. 


Converse, as a member of the firm of Burnham, Williams and 
Company from January 1, 1896; as Vice-President and Treasurer 
from July 1, 1909, and finally as President from July 1, 1911. Mr. 
Johnson's contribution to the succass of The Baldwin Locomotive 
Works was steady and important throughout these many years. 
His efforts to develop the foreign business of the Company were 
untiring, and his abilities in the executive capacities in which he 
was engaged were strengthened by an exceptional memory for the 
facts of important transactions throughout the period of his long 

Mr. Johnson w#s succeeded as President by Mr. S. M. Vauc- 
lain. He continued to serve, however, as a member of the Board 
of Directors. 

On May 19, 1919, Mr. William de Krafft was appointed 
Vice-President in Charge of Finance, and Treasurer. Mr. de 
Krafft had been connected with the Works since March 29, 1895. 
After serving in a number of the shop offices, he was transferred 
to the Purchasing Department, and subsequently to the Finan- 
cial Department in the Main office. When the Company was 
first incorporated, on July 1, 1909, Mr. de Krafft was appointed 
Secretary and Assistant Treasurer. At the time of the second 
incorporation, July 1, 1911, he was appointed Secretary and 
Treasurer, which position he held until his appointment as 

Two orders of special interest, which were filled for export 
during the winter of 1919-1920, called respectively for one hun- 
dred and fifty locomotives for the Polish Government and thirty 
for the South African Railways. The Polish locomotives are of 
standard gauge, and are practically duplicates of the "Pershing" 
Consolidation engines previously described. The South African 
locomotives are of three feet six inches gauge, and are of the 
Mountain (4-8-2) type. They have a total weight, exclusive of 
tender, of two hundred and five thousand pounds, and are of 
exceptional capacity in view of the narrow gauge and the re- 
stricted clearance limits imposed. They were built in accord- 
ance with drawings and specifications furnished by the railway, 
and the design incorporates plate frames and various other 
special features. One of these locomotives is illustrated herewith. 



In this connection, special reference should be made to the 
shipping and receiving facilities, both domestic and foreign, which 
have been developed by The Baldwin Locomotive Works. The 
Eddystone Plant, where locomotives are erected and prepared 
for shipment, has track connection with three important railways. 
The Washington main line and a branch of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad system, the main line of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 
and the Philadelphia & Reading Railway all run directly to the 
plant, and connect with a system of industrial railways covering 
all material yards, shops and docks. The Baldwin Locomotive 
Works is thus not only fitted with full facilities for railway and 
deep water shipping, but also for the receiving of materials direct 
from all parts of the country or from foreign ports. 

The Eddystone Plant is located on the west bank of the 
Delaware River about fourteen miles below the City of Phila- 
delphia, which stands second to New York only among the ports 
of the United States, the total movement of freight through the 
port in 1919 amounting to 9,314,755 tons. To accommodate 
this traffic the Delaware has been dredged to provide a ship 
channel eight hundred feet in width and thirty-five feet in depth 
at low water. At Eddystone the channel lies about two thousand 
feet off shore. In 1915, when the port facilities at Eddystone were 
planned, Crum Creek, about one hundred and fifty feet wide and 
from two to six feet deep, flowed through the land selected as the 
development site, which was low and marshy, being under water 
at high tide. In general terms the project contemplated the 
diversion of Crum Creek to a new channel farther to the north- 
ward, the reclamation of the marshy area through which it 
formerly flowed, the construction upon the reclaimed land of a 
system of wharves with suitable storage yards and railroad 



connections, and the provision of a turning basin and a dredged 
channel affording access from the wharves to the ship channel 
as well as ample space for maneuvering vessels at the docks. 

Reference to the plan of the Eddystone Works as thus far 
developed, which appears on page 137, will serve to fix in mind 
the features of this installation as well as the general layout of 
the plant and its location with reference to the railroads running 
through or adjacent to it. 

Mention has been made of the wharf built during the War, 
adjoining the plant which was leased to the Eddystone Ammuni- 
tion Corporation. The north-east front of this wharf is five 
hundred and sixty feet long, and is served by a gantry portal 
crane of fifty tons capacity. The south-east front, six hundred 
and forty feet in length, is used for package freight which can be 
loaded by ship's tackle. Both fronts are served by adequate 
trackage. A turning basin eleven hundred feet in diameter, and 
having a minimum depth of thirty feet of water, is located along- 
side the wharf. This basin communicates with the main ship 
channel by a connecting channel three hundred feet wide, having 
a minimum depth of twenty-two feet at low tide, and a maximum 
depth of twenty-eight at high tide. Sea-going steamers can thus 
be loaded at the plant, for direct shipment to any foreign port. 

These docking facilities, which will be increased as occasion 
requires, constitute the nucleus of a modern loading port at 
Eddystone. They have been provided in accordance with the 
policy of the Works to offer the most improved and complete 
service possible. The Branch Offices and Agencies of the Com- 
pany, listed on page 144, are so located as to cover the world's 
territory to the best possible advantage, and are prepared to 
render the most prompt and efficient service. This service 
includes the superintendence of shipment under the expert and 
individual attention of a specially organized shipping department 
and the erection and trial of locomotives on arrival at their 

The illustration on page 139, shows the loading of locomo- 
tives on the steamship "Kosciuszko," and is interesting for the 
reason that this vessel flies the flag of the recently formed Polish 
Republic, and was the first steamer of Polish registry to clear 



from any American port. She docked at Eddystone, December 
1, 1919, and departed December 11, having loaded twelve 
locomotives for the Polish Government. Shortly thereafter she 
sailed direct for Danzig, the newly acquired Polish port. The 
engraving below shows a small part of the river frontage, with 
two steamers docked for loading. On page 141, is shown a 
portion of the wharf served by the gantry crane and piled high 
with packing cases ready for shipment. 


Philadelphia's location is peculiarly favorable, in that it is in 
proximity to the principal coal mining and steel manufacturing 
sections of the country. The city, moreover, has a large per- 
manent population of skilled mechanics, engaged in machine 
and engine building, thus giving an abundant force of expert 
workmen from which to draw when necessary. 

The Works are fully equipped to build all types of locomotives 
and to supply locomotive duplicate and repair parts of every 
description. With the exception of the boiler and tank plates, 




chilled wheels, boiler tubes and special patented appliances, all 
parts of locomotives and tenders are made in the main or adjunct 
plants from the raw materials. The Works are also prepared to 
furnish such general engineering supplies and equipment as can 
be manufactured in a large locomotive building plant. 

Beginning with "Old Ironsides," built in 1831-32, consecutive 
construction numbers have been applied to the locomotives built 
at these Works. The growth of the business is indicated by the 
following statement, giving the years for the completion of loco- 
motives numbered in even thousands: 

No. 1,000, 


No. 13,000, 


No. 25,000, 


" 2,000, 


" 14,000, 


" 26,000, 


" 3,000, 


" 15,000, 


" 27,000, 


" 4,000, 


" 16,000, 


" 28,000, 


" 5,000, 


" 17,000, 


" 29,000, 


" 6,000, 


" 18,000, 


" 30,000, 


" 7,000, 


" 19,000, 


" 31,000, 


" 8,000, 


" 20,000, 


" 32,000, 


" 9,000, 


" 21,000, 


" 33,000, 


" 10,000, 


" 22,000, 


" 34,000, 


" 11,000, 


" 23,000, 


" 35,000, 


" 12,000, 


" 24,000, 


" 36,000, 











No. 49,000, 
" 50,000, 
" 51,000, 
" 52,000, 
" 53,000, 


The production during the years 1866-1919 was as follows: 



Locomotives Year 








































. .429 

1902 . . 


. .242 

1903 . . 


. .550 

1904. . 


. .653 

1905 . 


. .737 

1906. . 


. .827 

1907 . 


. .946 

1908. . 


. .899 




1910. . 


. .772 






. .401 



. .547 



. .501 

1915. . 


. .755 

1916. . 


. .901 




1918. . 



1919. . 


The present organization, based upon an annual capacity of 
three thousand five hundred locomotives, is as follows: 

Number of men employed 

Hours of labor, per man, per day 

Principal departments run continuously, hours per 


Horse-power employed jSt re m S gines : . 

Electric power purchased (horse-power) 

Number of buildings comprised in the Works . . . 

Acreage comprised in the Works j ^^ a ; ; ; 
Acreage of floor space comprised in buildings 











Horse-power of electric motors employed for power 

transmission, aggregate 57,400 

Number of incandescent electric lamps in service. . 14,000 

Number of electric motors in service 3,450 

Consumption of coal, in net tons, per week, about 4,200 

" fuel oil, in gallons, per week, about 175,000 
" iron and steel, in net tons, per 

week, about 6,500 

Consumption of other materials, in net tons, per 

week, about 3,000 

The future holds out many prospects of trade expansion, 
and The Baldwin Locomotive Works are fully prepared to meet 
any demands, either domestic or foreign, which may be made 
upon them. 



The Baldwin Locomotive Works 

General Offices of the Company 
500 North Broad Street, Philadelphia 


New York, N. Y. 


120 Broadway 

Chicago, 111. 


627 Railway Exchange 

St. Louis, Mo. 


1210 Boatmen's Bank Building 

Richmond, Va. 


407 Travelers Building 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 


279 Union Arcade Building 

Houston, Texas 


401 Carter Building 

St. Paul, Minn. 


908 Merchants National Bank 


Portland, Ore. 


312 Northwestern Bank Building 

San Francisco, Cal. 


310 Sansome Street 

Argentine Republic 


Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 185 

Balkan States 


Bucharest, Roumania 



Rio de Janeiro, Rua Alfandega, S 
















Dutch East Indies 


Bandoeng, Java 



Paris, 14 Rue Duphot 

Great Britain 


London, 34 Victoria Street, 

S. W. 1 

Hawaiian Islands 

C. BREWER & Co., LTD. 







Mexico City 

New South Wales 

R. TOWNS & Co. 


New Zealand 








Warsaw, Krolewska, 1 

Porto Rico and 

Santo Domingo 


San Juan, American Colonial 

Bank Building 




Portuguese East 



Lourenco Marques, Delagoa Bay 



Christiania, Norway (Toldboga- 

den, 8) 

Southern Africa 





Madrid, Apartado 473 




Western Australia 



West Indies 


Havana, 520 National Bank of 

Cuba Building 



Standard Steel Works Company 


500 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

WORKS: Burnham, Pa. 



ALBA B. JOHNSON, Rosemont, Pa. 

SAMUEL M. VAUCLAIN, Rosemont, Pa. 

SYDNEY E. HUTCHINSON, Philadelphia, Pa. 
SIDNEY F. TYLER, Philadelphia, Pa. 

B. DAWSON COLEMAN, Lebanon, Pa. 

ARTHUR W. SEWALL, Philadelphia, Pa. 

ARTHUR E. NEWBOLD, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Chairman of the Board 
. President 

Vice-President and Treasurer 
. Vice-President and Engineer 

. Comptroller 



Standard Steel Works Company 

The executive offices of the Standard Steel Works Company 
are located at 500 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania. The Works are situated at Burnham, on the Kisha- 
coquillas Creek, about three miles from Lewistown, Mifflin 
County, Pennsylvania; a locality long identified with the iron 
and steel industry. 

The land on which the Works are built is part of a tract 
originally warranted by Everhart Martin on April 2, 1755. 
Two hundred and twenty-five acres of the original warrant were 
sold to George Hanawalt on July 4, 1795, for 1000. A forge 
was established in 1795 by William Brown and William Maclay, 
who petitioned the Court in August, 1795, for "a road from 
Freedom Forge by the nearest and best way to the River Juniata, 
near to or at McClelland 's Landing." In 1811 Freedom Forge 
was acquired by Joseph Martin, Samuel Miller and John Brown, 
who operated under the name of Miller, Martin and Company. 
In 1827 John Norris purchased the interests of William Brown, 
but resold it in 1833 to William Brown, Jr. The Plant was used 
until 1834, when it was rebuilt with "one chafery and six refinery 
fires" having a capacity of "eight hundred tons of blooms per 

In 1847 the forge and furnace portion of the property was 
purchased by Archibald Wright, John Wright and John A. 
Wright, Philadelphia. In 1856 Messrs. Wright transferred the 
property to the "Freedom Iron Company" with Joseph Thomas 
as President. A tire mill with a capacity of two thousand tires 
a year was added. In 1865 the Company installed two five- ton 
Bessemer converters and rail mill, and built the Emma Furnace 
with the intention of using the "Stone Creek" ores to supply the 
Bessemer plant. The first heat was blown May 1, 1868. A tire 
mill and a double acting ten-ton steam hammer were imported 



from England. The use of the native ores proved unsuccessful, 
and in 1870 the Bessemer plant was sold, some of the machinery 
being removed to Joliet, Illinois, some to Johnstown, Pennsyl- 
vania, and the remainder becoming the property of the Logan 
Iron and Steel Company. 

In 1870 William Butcher leased the tire mill and hammer 
and the building erected for the Bessemer plant, and began the 
manufacture of crucible steel tires. William Butcher took with 
him from Philadelphia forty men for tire rollers, hammermen and 
machinists. Some of these men who manufactured the first steel 
tires made in America are still (1920) in the employ of the 
Standard Steel Works. 

The following year he failed, his creditors carrying on the 
business until 1875, when they organized The Standard Steel 
Works, which was incorporated in that year. The Standard 
Steel Works purchased the property in 1895. The manufacture 
of crucible steel tires was continued for some years. With the 
advent of acid open-hearth steel for tires an arrangement was 
made with the Otis Steel Company, then the leading manu- 
facturer of steel, under 
which tires were pro- 
duced from Otis steel 
ingots. This partnership 
continued until, realizing 
the necessity of pro- 
ducing their own steel, 
the Company established 
a complete melting 
plant, from which the 
first heat was poured 
March 19, 1895. This 
furnace, which had a 
capacity of fifteen tons, 
was the first rolling open- 
hearth furnace to be put 
into operation. It was served by an electric-driven charging 
machine, which was the first of its kind to be used, and is still 
in operation. 




The manufacture of built-up steel tired wheels for engine 
trucks, coaches, tenders and industrial purposes was begun in 
1892. The centers were made of wrought or cast iron, and later 
cast steel centers were added. 

In 1895 the Company designed and introduced the bolted 
type of steel tired wheel, which has proved to be the best type 
for all purposes. It has been adopted by many railroads, to the 
extent that other types of tire fastening have become practically 
obsolete. The bolted type was adopted by the Master Car 
Builders' Association in 
June, 1912, as the 
standard M. C. B. type 
of tire fastening. 

In 1911 the Com- 
pany introduced the 
rolled steel center, 
placing five hundred 
such centers with 
bolted type tires in the 
Pullman service. Since 
then the majority of 
steel tired wheels have 
been fitted with rolled 


The demand for steel castings being in excess of the supply, 
a steel foundry was established in 1897 with two fifteen-ton open- 
hearth furnaces, which furnaces have since been rebuilt as 
stationary furnaces of twenty tons capacity. The demand for 
steel castings kept increasing, so that it was necessary in 1910 to 
erect No. 2 Steel Foundry, which doubled the capacity. 

As the demand for locomotive forgings was in evidence the 
Company built a Forge Shop in 1898. It was necessary to enlarge 
in 1902; and in 1916, under the stress of war conditions, its 
capacity and scope were increased by the installation of seven 
steam hydraulic presses. At the present time (1920) the Com- 
pany is equipped with a plant of the most modern type, and is 
able to produce locomotive and marine forgings, shafts, rolls, 
ordnance forgings and miscellaneous forgings of weights up to 
forty tons, which can be handled under presses or hammers. 


During the year 1900 plans for the systematic enlargement 
of every department of the Standard Steel Works were instituted. 
The bed of the Kishacoquillas Creek was changed to allow 
uninterrupted space for additional buildings. 

The advent of new and greater activities necessitated the 
installation of increased facilities for the greater production of 
steel. Consequently, in 1902 Open-Hearth Plant No. 2 was built 
with one fifty-ton open-hearth furnace. Another fifty-ton open- 
hearth furnace was added in 1905, a third in 1907, a fourth in 1910 
and a fifth in 1916. Open-Hearth Plant No. 3 was built in 1917 
with two seventy-five-ton open-hearth furnaces. The capacity at 

this time (1920) is 
approximately two hundred 
thousand tons annually. 

Previous to 1903 the 
Company operated a small 
iron foundry for the pro- 
duction of its own cast iron 

wheel centers and miscel- 

laneous castings for its own 
work. In 1903 two large 
iron foundries were built for 
the manufacture of mis- 
cellaneous castings. Since 
then the Company has 
utilized the foundries for 
the production of their 

own centers, ingot moulds and other castings required for their 
own use, and malleable iron for the trade. 

In 1903 a Spring Shop was built with machinery of the 
latest and most approved design, especially constructed to meet 
requirements of this particular class of manufacture. It has been 
kept modern with the most up-to-date machinery to supply the 
most exacting demands. 

In 1904 the manufacture of the "Standard" solid forged and 
rolled steel wheels was begun. This was the introduction of this 
type of wheel into America, and it was at that time offered as a 
substitute for the cast iron chilled wheel which had become 


inadequate for modern service. The demand for rolled wheels to 
replace cast iron chilled wheels under the lightest as well as the 
heaviest equipment constantly increased, so that in 1910 a second 
plant was erected, doubling the capacity. In order to meet the 
increased demands in 1917, a third mill was erected. The 
preliminary forging operations for this mill are performed on two 
four-cylinder hydraulic presses of ten thousand tons capacity, 
especially designed for the work. The furnaces in this mill are 
heated by pulverized coal supplied from a central pulverizing 

Realizing the necessity of improving the steel in every 
possible manner in order to meet the most exacting demands, the 
subject of heat treatment has been given careful consideration 
and extensive experiments have been carried on. In 1910 a large 
heating plant was built, with further extensive additions in 1911. 
In 1916 the plant was doubled in capacity and provided with 
vertical tanks that were required for annealing, quenching, and 
tempering of gun and howitzer forgings, which were supplied by 
the Company to the United States Government. The furnaces 
are equipped with accurate pyrometer control. 

The weight of electric equipment and the severity of service 
were constantly increasing so that cast steel gears and pinions 
were neither rendering adequate service, nor could they meet the 
demands imposed upon them. In 1911, therefore, the Company 
began the manufacture of forged steel gears, which have met all 
expectations and proved very successful. 

The production of the various products necessarily meant 
constant increase in machine shop capacity, so that now the 
main shop is one hundred and seventy-five feet wide by ten 
hundred and fifty feet long, containing horizontal boring mills for 
machining tires, wheels and driving-wheel centers, with additional 
equipment of lathes, planers and other tools for finishing heavy 
forgings ; and equipped with specially designed lathes for hollow 
boring of driving-axles, wrist pins, etc. 

Among the specialties produced by the Company, particular 
mention must be made of built-up crank axles for locomotives. 
This type of crank axle was originally designed to meet the 
requirements of the four-cylinder balanced compound locomotive. 



Solid forged crank axles are in extensive use in Europe, but for 
lighter locomotives than are used in America. Even with the 
lighter locomotives, the solid cranks have not proved entirely 
satisfactory. In addition to the axle designed by the Company 
for use in the United States, the Company during the war 
designed and supplied a large number of crank axles built on the 
same general principle but of different pattern. The majority of 
these axles were built up of nine pieces, while others were made in 
five pieces, the crank-pins and central web being made from a 
single quenched and tempered forging. 

The Standard Steel Works met the demands imposed upon 
it by the extraordinary conditions caused by the World War. 


It was found necessary to maintain a full volume of output and at 
the same time to develop and manufacture shell and gun forgings. 
Large quantities of 4.7" to 12" shells were supplied for the 
British Government and equal quantities of 3" and 4.7" for the 
United States Government. Upon the entrance of the United 
States into the war the Government called upon the Company 
to supply 155 millimeter gun and 155 millimeter howitzer 

The total area covered at the present time by buildings and 
yard is 119 acres. The main plant lies along the east bank of 
the Kishacoquillas Creek. Water pipes connected with a con- 


stant and abundant supply of water, are laid throughout the 
Works, with convenient outlets at various points. A well- 
drilled fire department is maintained, manned and officered by 
the employees. 

There are fifteen miles of track in and around the plant, 
owned by the Company, on which are operated nine steam 
locomotives, two electric locomotives, nine locomotive cranes, 
one self-propelled hoisting engine and eighty-one cars. 

The entire plant is thoroughly modern in every particular 
with every labor-saving device incorporated. It represents the 
progress of the iron and steel industry which has been con- 
tinuous from the little forge of 1795, operated by water power 
and distributing its products by wagon, river and canal, to the 
extensively developed plant of 1920 with its diverse industries, 
capable of producing two hundred thousand tons of steel yearly 
and employing five thousand men. 



Abt system of rack-rail, locomotives for 79, 84 

Adhesion, device for increasing 20 

Africa, locomotives for 80, 135 

Air-spring for locomotives 34 

Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition, exhibit 103 

American Bridge Co : . 122 

American Railroad of Porto Rico, locomotive for 97 

American type locomotive, first used 26, 39 

Anthracite coal, first attempts to burn 24 

Antofagasta Railway, locomotive with outside frames 76 

Associated Lines Mikado type locomotives 108 

Associated Lines, "Standard" locomotive designs 96 

Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, Prairie type locomotives.. . .90, 100 

Decapod type locomotive 94 

Oil burning locomotives 95 

Santa Fe type locomotives. ... 96 
Atlantic type balanced com- 
pound locomotive 97 

" " " " Mallet locomotives with articu- 
lated boilers 109 

Pacific type balanced compound 

locomotive 106, 107 

Atlantic Avenue Railway motor 69 

Atlantic City Railroad, fast time on 87, 88 

Atlantic Coast Line, Atlantic type locomotives for 82 

Atlantic type locomotives 82, 86, 89, 90, 97 

Austin, WilHam L 76, 104, 105 

Austria, locomotive for 28 

Averill Coal and Oil Co., narrow gauge locomotive 64 

Baird, Matthew . 45, 67 

Balanced compound locomotives, description 92 

Baldwin, M. W. & Co., new firm 45 

Baldwin & Vail, new firm 26 

Baldwin & Whitney, new firm 35 

Baldwin compound locomotive, first 78 

Baldwin Locomotive Works, incorporation of 104 

Baldwin Locomotive Works, The, incorporation of 105 

Baldwin, M. W 7, 61 

Baldwin, Vail & Hufty 26 

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, eight-wheeled connected locomotives 43 

ten-wheeled locomotives 85 

Banquet, Union League 94 

Bavarian State Railways, Atlantic type locomotives 90 

" Consolidation type locomotives 90 

Belgian State Railways, locomotives for 90 

Belmont, August, Austrian locomotive 28 

Bismarck, Washburn and Great Falls Railway, Mikado type locomotive . 94 

Bissell, Levi, air-spring 34 

Bissell truck first used, 1861 57 

Board of Directors 104, 105 


Bo ler, articulated, for Mallet locomotives 109 

Dimpfel 56 

dome, abandoned 45 

radial stay wagon-top, introduced . 77 

straight, with two domes 56, 64 

Vanderbilt. 91 

wagon-top, introduced 45 

Bonds, issue of 104 

Bone Guelma Railway, locomotives for 88 

Borst, W. W., report of performance of narrow gauge locomotives 65 

Boston and Maine Railroad, electric locomotives 112 

Bound Brook Line, fast passenger locomotive 72 

Brass tires used on locomotive "Brandywine" 21 

British Government, locomotives for 117, 118 

rifles for 123 

Burnham, George 62, 115 

Burnham, George, Jr 84, 101 

Burnham, Parry, Williams & Co., new firm 67 

Burnham, Williams & Co., new firm . 79 

Cabs, first use of 41 

Camden and Amboy Railroad Co., locomotive imported 9 

Campbell, Henry R., design of locomotive 26 

Cannon, L. G., extract from letter 23 

Cantagallo Railway, locomotives for 74 

Cast steel frames first used 87 

Caterpillar gun mounts for United States Navy 123 

Cathcart, Andrew, design for rack-rail locomotive 42 

Centennial International Exhibition 68 

Centennial Narrow Gauge Railway 68 

Central Railroad of Georgia, early locomotives 33, 47 

Central Railroad of New Jersey, first double-ender locomotive 66 

Chadwick, Geo. A 122 

Charkoff Nicolaieff Railway, Russia, locomotives for 67 

Charleston and Hamburg Railroad Co., locomotive "Miller" 15 

Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad, Atlantic type locomotives. ... 89 

Santa Fe type locomotives. . . 107 

Chicago plant 106 

Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway, Walschaerts valve motion 

adopted 99 

Chicago Short Line, balanced compound locomotive 93 

Chilled wheels first used 25 

Chinese Eastern Railways, locomotives for 89 

"Chronicle," extract from 12 

Citizens' Railway of Baltimore, separate motor 71 

Clark, David, feed-water heater 54 

Classification first established . 35 

Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad, locomotives for 56 

Coal, experiments in combustion of 24, 42, 54 

Coleman, Robert, locomotive for 78 

Columbian Exposition, exhibit 81 

Combustion chamber introduced 56 

Compressed air locomotive for street cars 67 

Compressed air locomotives, first built 67 

Consolidation locomotives 60, 65, 78, 87, 90, 118, 119 

Converse, John H 67, 104, 105 

Corcovado Railway, rack-rail locomotive 77 


Corrugated fireboxes 71 

Crank-axles for locomotives 154 

Cross flues placed in firebox 55 

Ci uger, Alfred, order for locomotives 25 

Cuba, first locomotives exported to 25 

Cumberland Valley Railroad, locomotive with combustion chamber 56 

Cut-off valve 38 

Cut-off with separate valve and independent rock-shaft 51 

Cuyahoga cut-off 53 

Cylinder and half saddle in one piece 59 

Cylinders, balanced compound, cross section 93 

Cylindrical pedestals 23 

Cylindrical pedestals and boxes cast in chills 29 

Decapod type locomotives 75, 80, 94, 116 

Deflecting plate in firebox 54 

deGlehn compound locomotives 102 

deKrafft, William 104, 105, 135 

Delano grate 56 

Delano, Harvey 122 

Delaware, Lacka wanna and Western Railroad corrugated firebox sheets . . 71 

Denver and Rio Grande Railroad extended wagon-top boiler. . 77 

" narrow gauge locomotives 64, 65 

Detachable firebox 24 

Dimpfel boiler used 56 

Docks at Eddystone Plant 138-140 

Dom Pedro II Railway, first locomotives for 58 

Decapod locomotive 75 

" Mogul locomotive 68 

Domestic Sales Department 134 

Double eccentric adopted 25 

Double-ender type locomotive, Central Railroad of New Jersey 66 

Driving-axle, position of, Baldwin and Norris locomotives 19, 20 

Driving-wheels, compound wood and iron 17, 18 

Driving-wheels, patented, 1834 21, 22 

Driving-wheels with wrought iron centers, Vauclain patent 78 

Eastwick & Harrison equalizing beam 26 

Eddystone Ammunition Corporation 126-128 

Eddystone Munitions Co 128-130 

Eddystone Plant, extensions at 101, 114, 119, 120 

Eddystone Rifle Plant 123-126 

Egyptian State Railways, locomotives for 90 

Ehle, A. H., gasoline locomotives 105 

Eight- wheeled C engines 40 

connected locomotives 40, 41 

locomotive, H' R. Campbell 26 

tenders first built 25 

Electric locomotive, first built 82 

Electric locomotives, Boston and Maine Railroad >.- 112 

New York, New Haven and I lartford Railroad . . 99, 113 

Norfolk and Western Railway ' 113 

Electric mine locomotives with steel frames 113 

storage battery locomotiv es 114 

truck shop completed 101 

Ellet, Charles, operation of locomotives on heavy grades 48 

Engine truck, flexible beam 30, 31 


Engine truck, swing bolster 63 

England, contracts in . . . , 89 

Equalization of eight-wheeled locomotives 26 

Erecting shop, Eddystone Plant 114, 120 

Erecting shop, electrically equipped 78 

Erie and Kalamazoo Railroad, four coupled locomotive 34 

Erie Railroad, triple locomotive Ill 

Extract from article by Charles Ellet 48 

" on Centennial Narrow Gauge Railway 68 

"Chronicle" 12 

letter of G. A. Nicolls 33 

" " M. W. Baldwin 51 

"W. W. Borst... 65 

"Locomotive Engineering" 32 

patent specification of M. W. Baldwin 52 

"United States Gazette" 12 

Exhibit at Alaska- Yukon- Pacific Exposition 103 

" Centennial Exhibition 68 

" Columbian Exposition 81 

" Jamestown Exposition 102 

" Louisiana Purchase Exposition 96, 97 

" Pan-American Exposition 91 

" " Panama-Pacific International Exposition 131 

" Paris Exposition 90 

Fan for blowing fire 29 

Fast passenger locomotive Central Vermont Railroad 44 

Bound Brook Line 72 

locomotives, Pennsylvania Railroad 44 

Feed-water heater, Baltimore and Ohio locomotive 43 

" " patented by Baldwin and Clark 54 

Felton, S. M 120 

Financial embarrassments 24 

Finland State Railways, locomotives for 90 

Firebox, detachable 24 

Fireboxes, steel, first used 58 

with corrugated sides 71 

Firebrick arch used as a deflector 54 

Firebricks supported on side plugs 55 

" water-tubes 55 

Five-thousandth locomotive completed 72 

Fletcher, Andrew 127 

Flexible beam truck 30, 31 

Foreign Sales Department 134 

Four-cylinder locomotive proposed by M. W. Baldwin 45 

Frames, cast steel, first used 87 

Frames, first made integral with pedestals 29 

French and Baird smoke-stack 37 

French Government, locomotives for 117 

French State Railways, locomotives for 89 

Galveston, Houston and Henderson Railroad, oil-burning locomotive. ... 95 

Geared locomotive, design of M. W. Baldwin 27, 28 

Georgia Railroad, first engine with flexible beam truck 32 

Government Railways of New Zealand, Consolidation locomotives 72 

Government of Victoria, ten-wheeled locomotives 72 

Graham, J. F 108 


Grand Trunk Railway, Canada, locomotives for 67 

Great Central Railway, England, locomotives for 89 

Great Northern Railway, England, locomotives for 89 

United States, Mallet compound locomotives. . 99 

Greenough, Graf ton 121 

Grimes patent smoke-stack 38 

Ground joints for steam pipes 20 

Half-crank axle 14 

Half-stroke cut-off 39 

Hango-Hyvinge Railway of Finland, locomotives for 67 

Hardie, Robert, compressed air locomotive 73 

Harrison, Joseph, Jr., equalizing beam 26 

Heald, Edwin W 76 

Henderson, George R Ill 

Henszey, William P 62, 103 

High speed passenger locomotive, Philadelphia and Reading Railway. . . 83 

Hill and West Dubuque Street Railway, motors for 71 

Hodges, W. Sterling . . 131 

Hoosac Tunnel, electric locomotives for 112 

Horizontal cylinders, first used on engine "Ocmulgee" 59 

Hudson River Railroad, fast passenger locomotive 45 

Illinois Central Railroad, ten-wheeled locomotive 91 

Imperial Government Railways of Japan, locomotives for 98, 110 

Incorporation 104 

Internal combustion locomotives 105, 116, 120 

Iron flues, first used, advantage of 36, 37 

Italian Government locomotives for 100 

affa and Jerusalem Railway, locomotives for 79 

amaica Government Railways, mountain type locomotive 132 

ames, W. T., link motion 50 

amestown Exposition, exhibit 102 

apan, first locomotives for 77 

ohnson, Alba B 84, 104, 105, 134 

Kansas Pacific Railway, first locomotives to have tires shrunk on 66 

Koursk Charkoff Azof Railway, locomotives for 72 

Lehigh Valley Railroad, Consolidation locomotives 60, 68, 87 

Link motion, first applied by M. W. Baldwin 53 

" " first use of 50 

Locomotive, Baldwin No. 5,000 72 

Baldwin No. 10,000 77 

Baldwin No. 20,000 92 

Baldwin No. 30,000 101 

Baldwin No. 40,000 110 

Baldwin No. 50,000 133 

"Locomotive Engineering," extract from 32 

Locomotive, first Baldwin compound, 1889 78 

shortest time of construction 78 

with outside frames 76 

Locomotive "Alamosa," Denver and Rio Grande Railroad 65 

"Athens," Central Railroad of Georgia 47 

"Atlantic," Western Railroad of Massachusetts 39 

"Belle," Pennsylvania Railroad 53 



Locomotive "Best Friend," Charleston and Hamburg Railroad 14 

"Black Hawk," Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad 21 

'Blair," Pennsylvania Railroad 44 

"Brandywine," Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad 21 

'Clinton," Central Railroad of Georgia 47 

"Columbia," Baldwin Locomotive Works 81 

"Consolidation," Lehigh Valley Railroad 60 

'Delaware," Centennial Narrow Gauge Railway 69 

'E. A. Douglas," Thomas Iron Company 63 

'E. L. Miller," Charleston and Hamburg Railroad 15 

'Governor Paine," Vermont Central Railroad 43, 44 

'Hornet," Pennsylvania Railroad 55 

'Indiana," Pennsylvania Railroad 44 

'John Brough," Madison and Indianapolis Railroad 42 

'Lancaster," Pennsylvania State Railroad 16 

'Leopard," Pennsylvania Railroad 55 

"Matt H. Shay," Erie Railroad Ill 

"Media," West Chester and Philadelphia Railroad 55 

'M. G. Bright," Madison and Indianapolis Railroad 41 

"Mifflin," Pennsylvania Railroad 44 

'New England," Philadelphia and Reading Railroad 37 

'New Hampshire," Central Railroad of Georgia 53 

"Ocmulgee," Southwestern Railroad of Georgia 59 

"Old Ironsides," Philadelphia, Germantown and Norristown 


'Ontario," Philadelphia and Reading Railroad 

'Pennsylvania," Central Railroad of Georgia 

'Principe do Grao Para," Dom Pedro II Railway 

'Schuylkill," Centennial Narrow Gauge Railway 

'Sparta," Central Railroad of Georgia 

'Susquehanna," Hudson River Railroad 

'Tiger," Pennsylvania Railroad 

'Wasp," Pennsylvania Railroad 

'West Chester," Pennsylvania State Railroad 

Locomotives, American type 

Atlantic type 

Balanced compound 

compressed air. 

Consolidation type 

Decapod type 

deGlehn compound 


First Baldwin exported . . 

Flexible beam truck 

for Military Service 


Internal combustion 

Mallet type 

Mikado type 

Mogul type 

Mountain type 

Norris, 1834 

Pacific type 

Pechot type 

Prairie type 


Santa Fe type 


. 37 
. 53 
. 68 
. 69 
. 47 
. 45 
. 55 
. 55 
. 23 

82, 86, 89, 90, 97 

. .92, 97, 100, 102, 106 

.67, 73 
.60, 65, 78, 87,90, 118, 119 

75,80,94, 116 


82,99, 113 



:.... 115-120 

27, 28 

105, 116, 120 

97, 99, 108-110 

. . .86, 95, 107, 108, 118 



19, 20 

...92, 106, 110 


90,91, 100 

. . .42, 77, 78, 79, 80, 83, 84 
95, 101, 107 



Locomotives, Single rail 

Tandem compound 

Ten-wheeled 46, 

to burn Cumberland coal 

to burn Russian anthracite coal . . . 

Triple articulated 

with single pair of driving-wheels. . 

with upright boilers and horizontal 

Locomotives exported to Africa 















Jamaica . . : 




New South Wales 

New Zealand 




Porto Rico 



San Domingo 



Longstreth, Edward 

Louisville and Nashville Railroad, six-coupled 

wheeled Bissell truck 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition, exhibit 



47, 85, 91, 93, 100, 102, 118 




.......10, 15, 19,44, 72,83 

cylinders 30 

80, 135 





58, 64, 68, 74, 75, 77 




25, 71 




89, 90, 102, 117, 118 

80, 100 


77,85,98, 110 



72, 73, 99 




135, 140 



67, 72, 84, 115, 116 

83, 102 



62, 63, 76 

locomotive with two- 



Madison and Indianapolis Railroad, rack locomotive 

Mallet compound locomotives, narrow gauge 

broad gauge 

Marietta and Cincinnati Railroad, locomotive for. . . 

Mason, David, partnership 

McNaughton, James 

Meier Iron Co., locomotive for 

Metallic packing, 1840 

Metric system, locomotives built to 

Mexican National Construction Co., order from .... 

Midland Railway, England, locomotives for 

Midvale Steel and Ordnance Co 

Mie Kie Mines locomotive, first for Japan 

Mikado type locomotives 


110, 115 
108, 109 






102, 117 





95, 107, 108, 118 


"Miller, E. L.," locomotive for Charleston and Hamburg Railroad ..... 14-16 

Mine Hill Railroad, locomotive with peculiar crown sheet ............. 56 

Mine locomotives, inside and outside connected ...................... 66 

Miniature locomotive, Philadelphia Museum ......................... 9 

Mitchell, Alexander, first Consolidation type locomotive ............... 60 

Mogul locomotives ........................................... 63, 64, 79 

Mohawk and Hudson Railroad, locomotive with leading truck ........ 14, 15 

Morgan & Co., J. P ............................................... 126 

Morrow, William H ............................................ 76, 77 

Mountain top track ............................................ 50 

Narrow gauge locomotive, first built ... ........................... 64 

New Jersey Transportation Co., performance of locomotives ........... 23 

New South Wales and Queensland, first locomotives for .............. 71, 72 

New South Wales Government, tramway motors .................... 72 

Ten-wheeled locomotives ............. 99 

New York and Erie locomotives .................................. 45 

New York, Lake Erie and Western Railroad, Decapod locomotives ..... 80 

NewYork, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, electric locomotives, 99, 112, 113 
New Zealand Government Railways, locomotives for ................ 72, 92 

Nicolls, G. A., extract from letter ................................. 33 

Norfolk and Western Railway, electric locomotives ................... 113 

Nord Railway, France, locomotives for .............................. 118 

Norris, Septimus, ten-wheeled locomotive patent ..................... 46 

Norris, William . . . . ............................................. 19 

Northern Pacific Railroad, order .............. ..................... 66 

locomotive number ten-thousand ........... 77 

Norwegian State Railway, ten- wheeled locomotives ................... 72 

Number of locomotives constructed in 1834 .......................... 19 

1835-1840 ..................... 22 

1841-1842 .................... 30,32 

1843-1845 ..................... 35 

1846-1847 ..................... 41 

1848-1851 ............. . ........ 43 

1852-1854 .................... 45 

1855-1860 ..................... 55 

1861-1865 ..................... 57 

1866-1919 ................. 141, 142 

"Ocmulgee," first locomotive with horizontal cylinders ................ 59 

Officers, Baldwin Locomotive Works ................................ 104 

Officers, The Baldwin Locomotive Works ........................... 105 

Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, change in gauge ...................... 66 

Oil-burning locomotives ......................................... 95, 109 

"Old Ironsides," first Baldwin locomotive ......................... . .9-14 

Orel Griazi Railway, Russia, locomotives for ......................... 72 

Oregon Railroad and Navigation Co., locomotives for ................. 108 

Outside cylinders, Mr. Baldwin the first American builder ............. 59 

Pacific type locomotives .................................... 92, 106, 110 

Pan-American Exposition, exhibit .................................. 91 

Panama-Pacific International Exposition, exhibit ..................... 131 

Paris Exposition, exhibit .......................................... 90 

Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway, locomotives for ............. 118 

Paris-Orleans Railway, locomotives for ............................ 90, 102 

Parry, Charles T ................................................ 62, 77 

Peale, Franklin, Philadelphia Museum .............................. 9 


Pedestals, cylindrical 23 

Pennsylvania Lines, Pacific type locomotive 110 

Pennsylvania Railroad, fast passenger locomotives 44 

first locomotive with steel firebox 58 

first to use steel boiler 64 

four-wheeled swing-bolster truck 63 

large orders from 66, 99 

locomotive with firebrick arch 54 

locomotive with remarkable mileage record 63 

locomotive with steel flues 63 

ten-wheeled locomotives 46 

Pennsylvania State Railroad, locomotives for 16, 20, 23 

steam power adopted on 16 

Penoles Mining Co., rack and adhesion locomotive 84 

Pershing type locomotives 119, 120 

Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad, locomotive "Brandywine" 21 

Philadelphia and Reading Railway, Atlantic type locomotive 86 

first locomotive with iron tubes 36 

flexible beam truck locomotives, 33, 34, 41 

" high speed locomotive 82 

Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad, locomotive "Black Hawk" 21 

Philadelphia, Germantown and Norristown Railroad, 

locomotives for, 9-14, 25, 40, 54 

Philadelphia, Germantown and Norristown Railroad, time-table 13 

Philadelphia Locomotive Works. . 105 

Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad, Dimpfel boiler 56 

Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad, locomotives for 47 

Pittsburgh, Shawmut and Northern Railroad, Santa Fe type 101 

Pike's Peak rack locomotive 78, 79 

Plymouth Cordage Co., compressed air locomotive 68 

Pneumatic Tramway Engine Co., locomotive for 73 

Polish Government, locomotives for 135, 140 

Portage Railroad, locomotives for 47 

Principe do Grao Para, rack locomotives 77 

Prairie type locomotives 90, 91, 100 

Production statistics 141, 142 

Proving Ground, Lakehurst, New Jersey 127 

Pump and stirrup, design of 1834 19 

Rack and adhesion locomotives 83, 84 

Rack locomotive, first 42 

Rack-rail locomotives, Abt system 78, 79, 83, 84 

Riggenbach system 77 

Radial stay wagon-top boiler 77 

Radley and Hunter smoke-stack 38 

Railway gun mounts for United States Navy 121, 122 

Remington Arms Co. of Delaware 124 

Rensselaer and Saratoga Railroad, locomotive for 23 

Rifle Plant, Eddystone 123-126 

Riggenbach system rack locomotive 77 

Rock Fish Gap, temporary track 47 

Rocking grate first introduced 43 

Rockwell, C. K 128 

Rogers, Thomas, link motion adopted 50 

Rolled steel wheels 152 

Royal Railroad Company of Wurtemburg 39 

Rushton improved smoke-stack 38 


Russian locomotives, compound 84 

for Military Service 115, 116 

Russian railways, Mogul locomotives 67, 72 

Russian shrapnel 126, 127 

Sand box, first used 41 

San Domingo Improvement Co., rack and adhesion locomotive 83 

" , narrow gauge Mallet locomotive for 102 

Santa Fe type locomotives 95, 101, 107 

Schlacks, Chas. H 124, 129 

Shells for Great Britain and France 119- 

Shops, location of, 1834 17 

Shops partially destroyed 18, 101 

Single rail locomotives 65 

Six-wheels-connected locomotive, flexible beam truck 30 

Smith, A. F., combustion chamber 56 

Smoke-stack, French and Baird 37 

' Radley and Hunter 38 

' Rushton improved 38 

South African Railways, mountain type locomotives 135 

South Carolina Railroad, American type locomotive 39 

South Manchurian Railways, locomotives for 102 

South Side Elevated Railroad, Chicago, locomotives for 82 

Southern Pacific Co., Mallet locomotives 109 

' oil-burning locomotives 95, 109 

Southern Railway, Mallet locomotives 133 

Southwestern Railroad of Georgia, horizontal cylinders 59 

Spiral springs for engine truck 29 

Spiral springs in pedestal boxes 29 

Sprague, Duncan and Hutchison, electric locomotive 82 

Stagg, W. C 129 

Standard gauges and templets 60 

Standard gauges, first proposed 25 

locomotive designs for Associated Lines 96 

locomotives for United States Railroad Administration 132 

Steel Works, acquisition by Baldwin Locomotive Works 68 

Company, history of 149-155 

Stationary engine 8,17 

Statue pf'M. W. Baldwin unveiled 101 

St. Clair Tunnel, Decapod locomotive 79 1 

St. Phalle, Francois de 134 

Steam-chest for cut-off 38 

inspection car 

motor for street cars 71 

Steam street car 69 

' reconstructed .- 70 

Steel axles, first used 

' boilers, first introduced 64 

" fireboxes, first introduced 58 

' flues, first introduced 64 

" frames for electric mine locomotives 114 

" in locomotive construction, 1862 58 

" tired wheels 151 

" tires, first used 58 

" tires made with shoulder 58 

Stephenson link motion 39 

Robert & Co. . . 14 


Storage battery locomotives 114 

Stroud, William C 76, 80 

Sugarloaf Coal Co., geared locomotive 28 

Superheating 106, 107 

Swing bolster truck, four-wheeled plan 63 

Sykes, John P., Vice-President 121, 127 

L. A., opinion of Baldwin engines 23 

Tandem compound locomotives : 94, 96 

Tate, J. L 129 

Tenders, eight-wheeled, first used 25 

Ten-wheeled locomotive, introduction of . 45, 46 

locomotives 85, 91, 93, 99, 100, 102, 118 

Thomas Iron Co., Mogul locomotive 63 

Thomson, J. Edgar, order from 32 

Time-table, Philadelphia, Germantown and Norristown Railroad 13 

Tires for driving wheels, 1838 25 

' shrunk on wheel centers 66 

' steel, first used. . . , 58 

Tramway motors, New South Wales 72 

Triple articulated locomotives Ill 

Truck and tender wheels, design of 1834 20, 21 

Tubes of iron first used 36 

" with copper ferrules 21, 42 

Twenty-sixth street roundhouse completed 96 

Uniao Valenciana Railway, Brazil, narrow gauge locomotives 64 

"United States Gazette," extract 12 

United States Government, locomotives for 57, 119, 120, 132 

rifles for 124 

Navy, gun mounts for 121-123 

Railroad Administration, standard locomotives 132 

Urbano Railway of Havana, motor 71 

Utica and Schenectady Railroad, four-coupled locomotive 34 

Vail and Hufty, partnership . 26 

Valve motion with single eccentric 16 

Valve motion, Walschaerts, introduction of 99 

Vanderbilt boiler and tender, locomotive with, Illinois Central Railroad. 91 

Variable cut-off, adjustment 52 

chains substituted for straps 53 

patents .... 50 

with lever and links 53 

" exhaust, automatic 54 

Vauclain compound locomotives 78, 79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 86, 87, 89, 90, 95 

" Andrew C 18 

Samuel M 76, 78, 84, 104, 105, 121, 122, 126, 127, 135 

Vermont Central Railroad, fast passenger locomotive 44 

Veronej Rostoff Railway, Russia, locomotives for 66 

Virginia Central Railroad, locomotives for mountain service 48 

Virginian Railway, triple locomotive for 1: 

Vologda-Archangel Ry., locomotives for 115 

Walschaerts valve-motion, adoption of 99 

War activities, summary 130 

Water leg in firebox 54 

West Chester and Philadelphia Railroad, locomotive with brick arch. ... 55 


Western Railroad of Massachusetts, locomotives for 30, 36 

Wheel centers, wrought iron 78 

Wheels, improvements in, 1835 21 

Whitney, Asa, partnership 35 

Wilhelm, Capt. Walter M 129, 130 

Willard, A. L 122 

Williams, Edward H 62, 89 

Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad, locomotive for 40 

Winans, Ross 30 

Wooden frames abandoned . 25 

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